WikiLeaks logo
The Global Intelligence Files,
files released so far...

The Global Intelligence Files

The Global Intelligence Files

On Monday February 27th, 2012, WikiLeaks began publishing The Global Intelligence Files, over five million e-mails from the Texas headquartered "global intelligence" company Stratfor. The e-mails date between July 2004 and late December 2011. They reveal the inner workings of a company that fronts as an intelligence publisher, but provides confidential intelligence services to large corporations, such as Bhopal's Dow Chemical Co., Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, Raytheon and government agencies, including the US Department of Homeland Security, the US Marines and the US Defence Intelligence Agency. The emails show Stratfor's web of informers, pay-off structure, payment laundering techniques and psychological methods.

[Analytical & Intelligence Comments] "THE PROFESSIONAL" system by Kryzhanovsky (White House Special Handbook).

Released on 2012-08-06 00:00 GMT

Email-ID 5127100
Date 2010-07-22 09:21:43
Mikhail Kryzhanovsky sent a message using the contact form at


by Mikhail Kryzhanovsky

ALGORA , New York. 2007

To Hillary Rodham Clinton,
Who helped me to fight CIA
Who stood by my side in a desperate attempt to prevent 9/11 tragedy.

Mikhail Kryzhanovsky was born in 1958 in Ukraine. He graduated from
Chernovtsy State University and in 1983-1992 worked for KGB USSR as
intelligence officer.
He moved to USA in 1995 and worked here for CIA as expert.

Nothing is impossible
if you don't have to do it yourself.




Chapter 1. Presidential election.
Chapter 2. The White House management.
Chapter 3. Domestic Policy.
Chapter 4. The U.S. Congress management.
Chapter 5. Foreign policy.


Chapter 1. Be the best.
Chapter 2. Special influence.
Chapter 3. Special tools.
Chapter 4. How to run agents.
Chapter 5. FBI helper.
Chapter 6. Spies identification.
Chapter 7. Strategies.
Chapter 8. President’s security.


Chapter 1. Commander-in-Chief.
Chapter 2. Strategy and tactics.
Chapter 3. Stay alive.
Chapter 4. Tricks.


Chapter 1. What happened to them ( a united anti-CIA file).
Heinrich Muller, Marilyn Monroe, John F. Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Robert
Kennedy, Pope John Paul II, Ronald Brown, Diana Spencer, John Kennedy Jr.
Chapter 2. 9/11.


319 First Street, SE Washington, DC 20003


Mykhaylo Kryzhanovsky
Member number 567192584-Q415
Member Since 2006

This Platinum Card has been issued to the bearer by the Republican National
Committee in recognition of an extraordinary level of commitment to the
Republican ideals and values. The bearer of this card should be given special
considerations by all Republican leaders as one who has provided the
lifeblood of our Party over many years.
I believe your exemplary record of loyalty and patriotism proves you are a
leader President Bush can count on. It is therefore my distinct privilege as
Chairman of the Republican National Committee (RNC) to present you with your
2006 Republican Party Platinum Card on behalf of President Bush and every
Republican leader nationwide.
Your leadership as one of our Party’s elite Platinum Card holders is
critical to electing principled Republicans in this year’s crucial midterm
elections and implementing President Bush’s agenda. President Bush is
counting on proud Americans like you to stand with him this year — and to
help him make sure the policies we support and the Republican candidates who
share your values do not fall to defeat by the forces of partisan politics.
I believe your exemplary record of loyalty and patriotism proves you are a
leader President Bush can trust to fight with him for America’s safety and
security. Your proven leadership is just what President Bush and our party
need right now.

Please accept this honor with my sincere thanks.

Ken Mehlman
Chairman, Republican National Committee


Chapter 1. Presidential Election ( a mythmaking championship)

America is divided . If a Democrat is elected the U.S President, he has
to offer his Рepublican opponent the VP Office – that’s the only way we
can unite the nation. (My 2012 presidential election message).

1.1 How a President is Nominated and Elected

The Conventions.

The national conventions of both major parties are held during the summer of
a presidential election year. Earlier,each party selects delegates by
primaries, conventions,committees,etc. At each convention, a temporary
chairman is chosen. After a credentials committee seats the delegates, a
permanent chairman is elected. The convention then votes n a platform, drawn
up by the platform committee. By the third or fourth day, presidential
nominations begin. The chairman calls the roll of states alphabetically. A
state may place a candidate in nomination or yield to another state. Voting,
again alphabeticaly by roll call of states, begins after all nominations have
been made and seconded. A simple majority is required in each party,
although this may require many ballots.

Finally, the vice-presidential candidate is selected. Although there is no
law saying that the candidates must come from different states, it is,
practically, necessary for this to be the case. Otherwise, according to the
Constitution, electors from that state could vote only of the candidates and
would have to cast their other vote for some person of another state. This
could result in a presidential candidate’s receiving a majority electoral
vote and his or her running mate’s failing to do so.

The Electoral College.

The next step in the process is the nomination of electors in each state,
according to its laws. These electors must not be federal office holders. In
the November election, the voters cast their votes for electors, not for
president. In some states,the ballots include only the names of the
presidential and vice-presidential candidates; in others, they include only
names of the electors. Nowadays, it’s rare for electors to be split between
parties. The last such occurance was in North Carolina in 1968. On four
occasions (last was in 2000),the presidential candidate with the largest
popular vote failed to obtain an electoral vote majority. Each state has as
many electors as it has senators and representatives, plus 3 electoral votes
from the District of Columbia as a result of the 23rd Amendment to the
On the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, the electors
caast their votes in their respective state capitols. Constitutionally they
may vote for someone other than the party candidate but usually they do not
since they are pledged to one party and its candidate on the ballot. Should
the presidential or vice-presidential candidate die between the November
election and the December meetings, the electors pledged to vote for him or
her could vote for whomever they pleased. However, it seems certain that the
national committee would attempt to get an agreement among the state party
leaders for a replacement candidate.
The votes of the electors, certified by the states, are sent to Congress,
where the president of the Senate opens the certificates and has them
counted in the presence of both houses on January 6. The new president is
inaugurated at noon January 20.
Should no candidate receive a majority of the electoral vote for president,
the House of Representatives chooses a president from among the three highest
candidates, voting, not as individuals, but as states, with a majority (now
26) needed to elect. Should no vice-presidential candidate obtain the
majority, the Senate, voting as individuals, chooses from the highest two.

1.2. Reality Check

The formal requirements for the Presidency, as the Constitution says, are
simple: a candidate must be a natural-born US citizen, at least 35 years of
age and a US resident for at least 14 years. These requirements meet the
technical minimum, but the informal and sometimes less apparent ones are
equally important. You must have “political availability,” which means
political experience; be attractive (for political activists and general
voting public); and project personal characteristics that enable the public
to envision you as President. Voters — and funders — must believe that
you and only you deserve to represent them for the next four years.

If you pass the above tests, ask yourself six simple questions:
1. Am I a governor?
2. Am I a Congressman?
3. Am I a Senator?
4. Am I a Cabinet member?
5. Am I a lawyer?
6. Am I a leader?

The last question is the easiest.

Qualities of a leader:

1. Technical/specific skill at some task at hand.
2. Charisma - attractiveness to others and the ability to leverage this
esteem to motivate others.
3. Preoccupation with a role - dedication that consumes much of leader’s
life – service to a cause.
4. A clear sense of purpose (or mission) clear goals – focus –
5. Results-orientation – directing very action towards a mission –
prioritizing activities to spend time where results most accrue.
6. Cooperation - work well with others.
7. Optimism - very few pessimists become leaders.
8. Rejection of determinism - belief in one’s ability to “make a
9. Self-knowledge (in non-bureaucratic structures).
10. Self-awareness - the ability to “lead” one’s on self prior to
leading to leading other selves similarly.
11. Awareness of environment - the ability to understand the environment they
lead in and how they affect and are affected by it.
12. With regards to people and projects, the ability to choose winners –
recognizing that, unlike with skills, one cannot teach attitude.
13. Empathy - understanding what others say, rather than listening to how
they say things – this could partly sum this quality up as “walking in
someone else’s shoes”.
Integrity - the integration of outward actions and inner values.

Leadership styles

1. Vision. outstanding leaders articulate an ideological vision congruent
with the deeply-held values of followers, a vision that describes a better
future to which the followers have an alleged moral right.
2. Passion and sacrifice. Leaders display a passion for, and have a strong
conviction of, what they regard as the moral correctness of their vision.
They engage in outstanding or extraordinary behavior and make extraordinary
self-sacrifices in the interest of their vision and mission.
3. Confidence, determination and persistence. Outstanding leaders display a
high degree of faith in themselves and in the attainment of the vision they
articulate. Such leaders need to have a very high degree of self-confidence
and moral conviction because their mission usually challenges the status-quo
and, therefore, may offend those who have a stake in preserving the
established order.
4. Image-building. Leaders must be self-conscious about his own image. He
recognizes the desirability of followers perceiving them as competent,
credible and trustworthy.
5. Role-modeling. Leader-image-building sets the stage for effective
role-modeling because followers identify with the values of role models whom
they perceived in positive terms.
6. External representation. Outstanding leaders act as spokespersons for
their respective organizations and symbolically represent those organizations
to external constituencies.
7. Expectations of and confidence in followers. Outstanding leaders
communicate expectations of high performance from their followers and strong
confidence in their followers’ ability to meet such expectations.
8. Selective motive-arousal. Outstanding leaders selectively arouse those
motives of followers that the leaders see as special relevance to the
successful accomplishment of the vision and mission.
9. Frame alignment. To persuade followers to accept and implement change ,
outstanding leaders engage in “frame alignment”. This refers to the
linkage of individual and leader interpretive orientations such that some
set of followers ‘s interests, values and beliefs, as well as the
leader’s activities, goals and ideology, becomes congruent and
10. Inspirational communication. Outstanding leaders often, but not always,
communicate their message in an inspirational manner using vivid stories,
slogans, symbols and ceremonies.

A leader can have one or more visions of the future to aid him to move a
nation successfully towards this goal. A vision, for effectiveness, should
allegedly :
- appear as a simple, yet vibrant, image in the mind of the leader
- describe a future state, credible and preferable to the present state
- act as a bridge between the current state and a future optimum state
- appear desirable enough to energize followers
- succeed in speaking to followers at an emotional or spiritual level

For leadership to occur, leaders must not just see the vision themselves,
they must have the ability to get others to see it also. You can use
techniques like metaphors, symbolic actions, leading by example, incentives
and penalties.

Distinctions between managers and leaders:

Managers administer, leaders innovate.
Managers as how and when, leaders ask what and why.
Managers focus on systems, leaders focus on people.
Managers do things right, leaders do the right things.
Managers maintain, leaders develop.
Managers rely on control, leaders inspire trust.
Managers have a short-term perspective, leaders have a long-term perspective,
Managers accept the status-quo, leaders challenge the status-quo.
Managers have an eye on the bottom-line, leaders have an eye on the horizon
Managers imitate, leaders originate.
Managers emulate the classic good soldier, leaders are their own person.
Managers copy, leaders show originality.

Seventeen US Presidents previously served as Governors: Thomas Jefferson,
Martin Van Buren, William Harrison, John Tyler, James Polk, Andrew Johnson,
Rutherford Hayes, Grover Cleveland, William McKinley, Theodore Roosevelt,
William Taft, Woodrow Wilson, Calvin Coolidge, Franklin Roosevelt, Jimmy
Carter, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush.
Nineteen US Presidents were Congressmen: James Madison, John Adams, Andrew
Jackson, William Harrison, John Tyler, James Polk, Millard Fillmore, Franklin
Pierce, James Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson, Rutherford Hayes,
James Garfield, William McKinley, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard
Nixon, Gerald Ford, George Bush.
Fifteen US Presidents were Senators: James Monroe, John Adams, Andrew
Jackson, Martin Van Buren, William Harrison, John Tyler, Franklin Pierce,
James Buchanan, Andrew Johnson, Benjamin Harrison, Warren Harding, Harry
Truman, John Kennedy, Lyndon Johnson, Richard Nixon.
Six were Secretaries of State — Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James
Monroe, John Adams, Martin Van Buren, James Buchanan.
Two were Secretaries of War — Ulysses S. Grant and William Taft.
One was a Secretary of Commerce — Herbert Hoover.
And a full twenty-six US Presidents were lawyers: John Adams, Thomas
Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, John Adams, Andrew Jackson, Martin
Van Buren, John Tyler, James Polk, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce, James
Buchanan, Abraham Lincoln, Rutherford Hayes, James Garfield, Chester Arthur,
Grover Cleveland, Benjamin Harrison, William McKinley, William Howard Taft,
Woodrow Wilson, Calvin Coolidge, Franklin Roosevelt, Richard Nixon, Gerald
Ford, Bill Clinton.

However, without wishing to dampen your enthusiasm, I must add that 8
Governors, 7 US Senators, 9 US Congressmen, 11 Mayors, 17 State Legislators
and 11 judges have been violently attacked by 2005.

1.3 The Bilderberg Group

The Bilderberg Group is an annual invitation-only conference of around 100
guests, most of whom are usually influential politicians and big business.
The title comes from the location of its first official meeting in 1954 in
the Bilderberg Hotel, Arnhem, Netherlands. Its main office is now in Leiden,
South Holland, the group’s current Chairman is Etienne Davignon, a former
Vice President of the European Commission. The original intention of the
group was to further the understanding between Western Europe and North
America through informal and closed for media and public meetings between
powerful individuals. Of course, that’s not what they are doing. If you
look through the guests’ lists, you can find some very popular names like
David Rockefeller, Donald Rumsfeld and George Soros. Lists differ each year,
but there’s one name that remains there for years - Henry Kissinger, a
former Secretary of State, who rules the Bilderberg Group and rules the
world. Bill Clinton, the Arkansas Governor and 1992 presidential nominee went
to Baden-Baden and attended the Conference on June 6 1991.

1.4 Democrat or Republican - Choosing Sides

The next step is to decide whether you want to be cast as a liberal
(Democrat) or conservative (Republican). If you don’t take a definite side,
you will be labeled as a moderate liberal-conservative.

You are a Democrat if you:
1. Embrace national government resolutions to public problems.
2. Believe that the national government should intervene in the economy to
ensure its health, to support social welfare problems to assist the
disadvantaged, and to be tolerant of social change.
3. Identify yourself with pro-women’s rights position, pro-civil rights
policies, and opposition to increased defense spending.
4. Increase taxes.
5. Negotiate first and take military action only if sanctioned by the UN.
6. Block drilling for oil in Alaska.
7. Sign the Kyoto Treaty.
8. Protect the rights of the accused first and foremost.
9. Allow doctor-assisted suicide.
10. Scrap the missile defense program.
11. Increase age of initial retirement eligibility (e.g. 68 or 70); increase
salary limits subject to tax.
12. Propose 100% government-controlled reform.
13. Maintain separation of church and state; stop faith-based government

You are a Republican if you:
1. State that the national government has grown too large.
2. Insist the private sector needs less interference from the government,
that social welfare programs should be limited and state and local
governments should be able to make their own decisions, and that the
nation’s defense should be strengthened
3. Are not tolerant of gay rights laws.
4. Cut taxes.
5. Work with the UN but take unilateral pre-emptive action to show the
United States is not under anyone’s thumb.
6. Pursue this and other domestic oil sources.
7. Don’t sign environmental treaties.
8. Provide maximum punishment and protect the rights of the victim first and
9. Argue against any kind of suicide.
10. Boost international military programs.
11. Privatize; i.e. oblige citizens to handle their own retirement money and
allow stock investments.
12. De-regulate health care and introduce free market health care.
13. Introduce more religion in schools and public ceremonies; promote
faith-based government initiatives.

1.5 Get Ready

Before you make a decision to run for President, you must determine for
yourself if you can handle the Oval Office: Are you willing to accept such a
huge responsibility and put the rest of your life on hold ? Are you skilled
in dealing with big groups of people ? Can you motivate the nation to action
? And think about your biography, which is, of course, not perfect.

Then you must:

1. Decide how are you going to impress party leaders.
2. Make intensive preliminary polling to determine your chances.
3, Poll big demographic groups as well as smaller groups of people from
selected demographic groups.
4. Determine the rationale for your candidacy. What is your political record?
5. Delay announcing your candidacy until late in the year before the election
to minimize expenditures and risk, avoid legal spending limits, avoid voter
fatigue, avoid getting ensnarled in unnecessary controversies and
6. Carefully study applicable election laws before you start fundraising and
7. Write your campaign plan (strategic objective, tactical targets, key
message, target audiences, methods of delivery, timing, your progress
evaluation — polls).
8. Learn the political and economic issues and develop your campaign message.
9. Prepare the “speech” and the “book” (the “speech” is the
standard speech that you deliver and it should answer the most important
question — why are you running for President; the “book” contains the
message and all possible questions on your program.
10. Take a benchmark poll — it will provide the road map for your campaign.
11. Establish your strategy and message
12. Study the results, polls and “successful” areas of previous election.
13. Establish a perfect graphic look (image).
14. Develop a fundraising plan, put the fundraising team in place and start
asking for money. No money — no campaign.
15. Create a personal contacts pyramid (priority and general contacts)
because personal popularity is your starting point.
16. Set up offices.
17. Get professional candidate training.
18. Determine the focus of your presidential policy (taxes, crime, education,
health, social security, national security).

1.6 Working with the Staff

Basic campaign staffers include:

1) campaign managers — they plan the campaign, organize and recruit the
staff, supervise daily campaign operations, make priority contacts with key
special groups big business and big media, correct the strategy and make
quick decisions. It has to be someone you trust completely.
2) campaign consultants-specialists in both direct (personal and public
meetings) and indirect (media, advertising) campaigning
3) strategists
4) analysts
5) issues researchers
6) speechwriters
7) lawyer (interprets election and campaign reporting laws)
8) personal assistants (work on issues in foreign and domestic policy in
cooperation with the whole team).
9) fundraisers (plan and execute fundraising events — dinners, parties,
auctions, direct appeals through telephone and letters, receptions,
computerized fundraising). Big business has to be approached by rich
fundraiser only.
10) scheduler (determines events and locations — TV and radio talk shows,
news — conferences, meetings with students and professors at college
campuses and with professionals at their associations’ annual meetings,
special events and fundraisers especially with ethnic leaders in big cities,
as well as festivals and big shows where celebrities demonstrate their
support, large extravaganzas, meetings at civic clubs, farm warehouse
auctions and special auctions, local civic events. Also, scheduler makes
arrangements with local media before your visit and sends media the copies of
your speech; insures that good crowd will attend the event and takes care of
transportation arrangements). The purpose of the campaign planning and
strategic scheduling is to draw press attention to the candidate for
transmission to the voting public. That’s natural — the candidate who has
enough media attention has much better chances of recruiting public
acceptance and raising campaign funds.
During the “invisible primary” which is the nomination, campaign you have
to make visits to party organizations especially in pivotal states, such as
the above mentioned Iowa and New Hampshire where you have to make as many
handshaking and personal contacts as possible. Key staffers must travel with

1.7 Fundraising

You are the #1 fundraiser yourself. You must have substantial financial
support to compete. It was estimated early in 2007 that the major candidates
for 2008 will spend ONE BILLION dollars in their campaigns. As they say, at
that rate, pretty soon we’re talking real money.
You must have an overall plan which outlines expenditures month by month.
It is imperative to have even more money on hand at the end of the campaign
for an advertising blitz when the voters are most attentive and the field of
candidates has been winnowed out. Half of a campaign funds go to media.
Failing to do well in early caucus and primary contests means more than
losing delegates — it means that contributions stop.
Your speeches have to be a fun, and match the meal and drinks — don’t
be heavy and too political. Actually, you have to run two campaigns (a
political campaign and a fund-raising one) and you must win both; if you
raise less money than your opponent, you lose, because you don’t have
enough money to inform, influence, and motivate your voters. If you are a
Senator or a Congressman, you already have an advantage in money (free
postage on mail sent to your constituents, automatic media coverage) and you
can use your congressional staff to assist your campaign. Besides, you are
interviewed by reporters for free as an elected official. You can also ask
your political party for a contribution to your campaign. Party money can be
given in two ways — as a “direct” contribution or as a
“coordinated” expenditure. Direct contributions are funds given by the
party to candidates to do with as they please. Coordinated expenditures are
made for such services as polling and TV advertising, but the party has a say
how the money is spent.
Then you have to ask PACs (political action committees) to fund your
campaign, too. PACs are special-interest groups which consist of people who
pool their money in order to contribute it to candidates or political party
committees who share their political, social, religious or economic views.
PACs include corporations, trade unions, professional associations and groups
composed of political conservatives or liberals, or people who share the same
ideological views on women’s rights, gun control, the environment, civil
rights, etc. Remember the “women factor”: there are more women than men
in our country, women are more likely to be registered to vote, and among
registered voters women are more likely to vote. An additional source of
money is “soft money” contributions. “Soft money” is supposed to be
used for the party-building activities, but often ends up supporting the
campaigns of individual candidates.

The key rules in fundraising are:
- find some “fat cats,” quick
- go where the money is - get fundraisers with lots of rich friends
- get money from those who usually contribute

And the most important strategy is to raise big money for yourself and
prevent big money from being spent against you. Early fundraising is crucial
to a campaign because of the high costs organization and the need to
demonstrate viability. The best states for fundraising are California, New
York, Florida, Texas, which supply half of all campaign donations. Go right
ahead and raise money in New York and spend in Iowa and New Hampshire.
To finish well in pre-nomination popularity contests (“straw polls”)
you have to appear daily in TV ads, and prime-time news coverage — after
the primaries media “label” winners and losers and that affects voters
and contributors a lot. Media, especially the most influential “the New
York Times” and “Washington Post” (their publications influence
decisions on which news stories will be carried on TV channels), have to take
you as a very serious contender.

1. 8 Geography

Due to the winner-take-all electoral college system, in which the leading
vote-getter in a state wins all of that state’s electoral votes, you MUST
win as many large states as possible rather than build up strength in states
where you are weak. You have to win a majority (270 of the 538 electoral
votes) and for that, concentrate on visits to the most populous states —
California, New York, Texas, Florida, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan,
New Jersey, North Carolina, and Georgia 54+33+32+25+23+22+21+18+15+14+13 =
Work closely with your party activists and supporters among Senators,
Representatives, Governors, Mayors, ethnic and religious groups leaders, big
business, celebrities, unions leaders. Determine the states in which you are
the strongest and then build you campaign on that basis. Republicans have
usually done well in recent years in the Midwest, West and South (Tennessee,
Kentucky, Texas, Oklahoma). Democrats win in the Northeast industrial base,
Mid-Atlantic and Pacific Coast. New York City is a very important factor
because the most active, influential and rich people live there.

1.9 The Press

The press officer (contacts media, takes care of newspapers, radio and TV
ads) — the person who markets you — is the boss of advance team that
takes care in each state of a total exclusively positive press coverage. To
my mind, the best choice for this position is a former journalist with good
wide connections to media. He prepares press releases and press kits and
schedules interviews and press conferences with the positive vision and
attitude reporters (press or media kits contain your photos, a brief
biography, campaign position papers, printed brochures and names of contacts
for additional information).

The technique in good paid advertising is to go with those ideas,
arguments, thoughts, themes and believes in which people are already inclined
to believe or ready to accept. There’s no difference between commercial and
political advertising — you just substitute a car or shampoo for a human
being. Modern presidential campaigns center on “media events” — staged
public appearances, during which reporters can talk with you and take
pictures (if you have too much money, you can organize media wave — a very
large amount of political advertising on TV). Then, the “walking tours”
must be scheduled when you, followed by reporters, photographers and TV crews
visit potential supporters.
Simultaneously your aide sets up press conferences, selects interviews, and
background briefings. You have to talk to press 24/7 and everywhere on the
campaign bus, train or plain, hotel, etc. A good thing is — you get free
media coverage and people trust it more than paid coverage, like TV and radio
commercials. You are most likely to win if you obey these rules:
- if you can manipulate media — you manipulate the nation (sorry, it’s
harder to manipulate free coverage).
- the media makes the election, not the voters
- a presidential campaign does not allow for privacy
- newspapers put emphasis on issues, TV on image, style and ability to
- never lie to reporters; they will make sure it backfires on you sooner or
- if an influential newspaper, radio or TV station endorses you, you have
their supporters, readers, listeners and viewers.
- people remember much better what they see, not what they read; if they
don’t see you on TV, you don’t exist.
- TV talks to 98% of Americans and takes your message — and other messages
about, or against, you — immediately, straight to the nation.
- TV, not your political party, is the #1 channel of communication between
you and the public
- your political party is nothing but a service center and a money machine.
Parties divide the nation while your message has to be one of unity.
- take it seriously if The New York Times takes your opponent seriously.
- it’s important to know what your opponent is saying to reporters
privately, “not for attribution.”
- if you live in heavily populated state, like New York, California or Texas,
you start the presidential election campaign with much better coverage.
- never fight the media like the Nixon administration did — they kept a
list of Nixon’s critics (famous reporters), so they could be targeted for
harassment, accused of income tax evasion, etc. What happened then? The
reporters felt like heroes, Nobel Prize winners. Better target them for
buttering up, and feed them lots of stories with a spin in your favor,

1.10 Polls

Pollsters works through newspapers, Internet, telephone surveys,
person-to-person surveys, mailed questionnaire to selected voters. They
provide voters' behavior research and analyze past election data. They tell
to you how well-known you are, how well you perform, what are the voters’
preferences. You should poll voters in each state in proportion to that
state’s share of the national vote. (You must have at least one polling
company on payroll.) Polling is of extreme importance in presidential
campaign because it’s the tool to correct your strategy, determine
“positive” local areas and supportive voters and work with them, it tests
the nation’s attitude to your personality and your issues and that means
you can calibrate your message and calculate your success. The most important
thing about polls is that they play indicator and identify support or
hostility. And the golden rule here is: you have to ask the right question if
you want to get a useful answer.
At the same time polling is one of the most expensive elements of a modern
campaign because now you have to receive information on too many groups and
issues, including groups with specific economic, ethnic, religious,
geographic, educational, occupational and residential characteristics and how
those characteristics affect attitudes about a wide range of policy issues.

Polls also help you:
- to decide whether to run or not
- improve your recognition and image
- target opposition’s weakness
- formulate media ads

Your pollster has to pinpoint blocks of voters (swing districts) who are
undecided and who might be persuaded to vote for you. Experience shows that
40% of public attention go to social problems, 40% — to economy and 20% —
to international matters, but if the United States is at war, the situation
is different and national security turns into a top priority for everyone.
And watch out for campaign spies — keep polls analysis and media plan

Practical polls
“Benchmark” - surveys of the whole nation which provide basic information
about your chances and the nation’s political preferences (it’s your
“presidential decision maker”).
“Follow-up” - surveys are used to gather more data about particular
concerns raised in initial benchmark surveys. They are conducted state by
state and are used in planning campaign strategy.
“Panel” - surveys are used to refine strategy further by re-interviewing
previous respondents to determine opinion shifts on specific issues within
various demographic categories. They are supplemented by continuous
“tracking polls” that measure fluctuations in general voter support for
the candidate across time.
“Special group” - used to poll the debate results. Selected groups of
voters watch candidate debates and register their “positive “ or
“negative” feelings toward the candidate’s specific statements or
actions. After that analysts tabulate and analyze the reactions of the whole

1.11 Other Critical Personnel

“Image makers” - political consultants who sell your public image as a
clear, simple, portrait-like characterization, acceptable to all groups.
“Hit men” - campaign consultants who are experts on negative advertising,
designed to “kill” your opponents.
“Field staff” (in target cities mostly). The most important person at any
local office is the coordinator — he establishes organization and contacts
influential people and political activists. Coordinators must be appointed to
each special interests group (women, minorities, unions, college students,
public interest activists, the professionals)
“Local volunteers” are needed to work in the offices and the streets.
Your family has to take an active part in your campaign, too. Your wife and
kids are your visual image makers
“Running Mate.” Your running mate belongs to your staff too — it has to
be your best choice. This person should be compatible with you in age,
intellect, political views, and be of approximately the same height. He is
selected to balance the national ticket in terms of geography, religion,
ideology, government experience and political style. You have to appeal to
the broad electorate, while your running mate appeals to specific groups. He
serves to reinforce — or break down — the electorate’s attitudes toward
you. If you have little domestic or foreign policy, or Washington experience,
a running mate with that experience can reassure voters. And he has to give
voters the impression your policy will be continued unchanged in case you die
during your presidency or in case he is elected the US President himself
after your two terms in the Office.

1.12 Campaign Tips

Never behave as if you think you are God’s gift to the nation.
Be presidential - look calm, sincere, knowledgeable, fatherly and open.
Be electable - prove to the nation that you are the best choice.
No one has ever been elected the US President without winning the New
Hampshire primary.
Primaries direct financial backers to a promising candidate.
Voters judge you by your friends — appear with popular politicians, big
business, labor and interest groups leaders, and show business celebrities.
Advertize your meetings with Congress members and world leaders (go abroad if
you have a chance to meet a world leader).
The most important event in the election process is the National Convention,
not only because the eventual finalist candidate is actually nominated but
because after that the campaign’s audience increases (more than twice as
many people vote in general elections as participate in the nomination
process). You have to decide how to win the support of these new voters as
well as to appeal to people who identify with the other party and partisans
who backed losing candidates for the nomination.

1.13 Choosing a Strategy

Any strategy is good if it helps you to win support of a majority of people
chosen by the state parties to be delegates to the national convention. Your
choice of a strategy depends on your current position:

A. If you are an incumbent, you have to stress that the American people’s
life improved a lot during your first term. You can count on successful start
because you are guaranteed to be known actually to every American, and the
Oval Office lends you credibility and respect. It’s of vital importance to
have economic accomplishments — in such a case well-timed announcements of
government statistics on the economy or of plans for domestic initiatives can
also help you. Listen, I didn’t tell you this, but you have to manipulate
(stimulate) the economy during the election year with tax cuts that can help
reduce unemployment, and with social programs financing.
Of course, you’ll have to pay for it, but that will happen after you are
re-elected. And a good thing is — an improved economy erases voters’ bad
memories of past years. Then, try to avoid too aggressive campaigning —
it’s a sign of weakness. Make official appearances in carefully controlled
settings. Influence media coverage with official presidential actions and use
“pork barrel” politics to appeal to specific constituents. You can also
benefit from the nation’s reluctance to reject a tested national leader for
an unknown newcomer. And if you start important foreign policy initiatives,
it will guarantee you continued media coverage.
If you have poor chances to be re-elected, you can play the “national
security” card:
- find a US “enemy”
- start a media psychosis (see propaganda tricks and brainwashing )
- concentrate power (special services) to establish a total legal control on
the nation
- provoke an international conflict, restricted or full-scale war
- send a message: “If you are against the President, you are against

B. If you are a challenger you have to convince the public they don’t
live better than they did 4 years ago, or, if the economy is OK, point out
mistakes that were made in the foreign policy. Or make up some social issue
that will get passions inflamed and hijack the headlines.
The job is tough if you challenge a President who is popular — first, you
have to break down his positive image; second, you have to portray yourself
as a much better replacement. You have no choice but to start with the
“outsider” strategy — you present a “fresh face” to voters weary of
the current political situation (in such a case you have to attack
administration in a very aggressive manner). Plus, you must give quick
response to your opponent’s charges (get advance copies of his speeches
through friends in the media).
Then, show yourself as a smart and diplomatic person using a special
“triangular” strategy, when you, like majority of the voters, place
yourself between liberal and conservative positions. Evaluate situation —
you may need “early knockout,” when front-runners hope to use their early
strength in polls, fundraising and endorsements into decisive primary
victories at the beginning of the primary season. The hope is that the
candidate will build such an impressive early lead that the competition
quickly drops out. And a “shift” is the most popular thing with
challengers — if the President is good in national security, they point out
to the problems in economy, if he’s good on the economy, they point out to
the problems in national security — very simple. (Watch his mistakes anyway
— you can benefit from them. Bill Clinton would never have run for
President in 1992 if someone from the Bush White House hadn’t called him in
1990 and asked him not to run. That phone call was one of the dummest
political moves of the 20th century, because it convinced Clinton that they
thought he had a good chance if he did run for Office.)
Be simple, identify with “ordinary people” and no matter what tell the
voters your parents or your grandparents “were like them — regular
people, not millionaires.” You can even say “Feb-uary” and
“nuc-ular,” and see if they forget you were educated at Yale.

Finally, you must know some very popular and efficient dirty tricks, like
“negative campaigning” or “black PR.” To make a long story short: no
matter what your opponent says or what decent people think about negative
campaigning — “black PR” works! Use it to turn a rumor or a fact into a
serious political scandal; respond to and neutralize the opponent’s attacks
(using “black PR”) fast, before they are broadcasted or published.
It works best through intermediates (persons and organizations not
connected directly to your campaign). You must have a very detailed file on
your opponent (negative research) and then start spreading negative and all
kinds of compromising data from his personal and political life. If he is or
was elected official (Senator, Governor, Mayor), you can point out his
mistakes and actions which were not popular. People must know in detail (get
your staff to read a few books) the negative sides of his life, program and
terrible consequences of his election. Remember also that a rumor repeated
twice turns into a fact, especially if you start a “whispering campaign”
in Congress.
A “negative ID” trick is my favorite: you identify your opponent with a
totally unacceptable (for the voters) viewpoint, like: “There are those who
want to stop the war on international terror and you know who they are!”

1.14 Debates

Debates are very important because they offer the only all-national event
at which candidates can be judged. You and your opponent will be under huge
stress as you both must operate simultaneously at the focus of attention of
each other and of all elements of electorate. Debates are, actually,
head-to-head confrontations with two main aspects: the pre-debate
negotiations over whether there will be a debate, and the post-debate
analysis of who did how well. The debates offer nothing new for the public
and the basic strategy is to hope your opponent will make a mistake
(President Ford made one in 1976, saying that: “There is no Soviet
domination of Eastern Europe.” People just didn’t want to hear it.
Richard Nixon was very wrong in 1960 trying to debate on substance, while his
opponent, John F. Kennedy, concentrated on style and on presenting the
correct presidential image).

While preparing for the winning debates you must:
- have a detailed file on your opponent and study all his speeches and
statements; ask yourself: “What does he have that I don’t have?”
- train to answer all possible questions
- be ready to demonstrate deep knowledge of issues and your presidential
bearing to a nationwide audience
- repeat your message but keep in mind that image is more important than
ideas while you debate — people want to see your good looks, good clothes
and nice smile.

And here are the debating “Don’ts”:
Don’t attack first — that’s a sign of weakness.
Don’t be over-polite — a little showmanship appeals to voters.
Don’t be too aggressive — it will ruin your image as a future President.
Don’t answer the questions too fast — that implies you are not thinking.
Don’t rush, no negative emotions, no sudden gestures (extra gestures mean
that you are not surewhat you are saying is correct).
Don’t touch anything while you talk.
Don’t disappoint people — speak in a clear and simple way.
You restrict your influence if you sit.

Follow the rules :
Avoid anxiety reactions — speech errors, moistening of lips, perspiring,
shifting eye movements, body jerks. Gesturing with fingers apart communicates
weakness, while gesturing with fingers tightly together communicates power.
Look at your opponent with intense concentration — it gives the attitude of
command and comfort of the situation. .
Answer a question you want to answer, no matter what question was asked.
If you give better answers, you are the better candidate.
Immediately after the debates your press officer has to give the media his
biased impression and explain why you won the debates. Your pollster has to
watch the polls results.

1.14 Speaking in Public

First things first - you have to know your own nation well. Here is a popular
classification of American voters:

1. Entrepreneurs. Traditional Republicans driven by free enterprise economic
2. Moralists. Less affluent populist Republicans driven by moral issues, such
as abortion.
3. New Dealers. Older traditional Democrats who are pro-government but
socially conservative.
4. Sixties Democrats. Mainstream Democrats highly tolerant of varying
lifestyles with strong beliefs in social justice.
5. Partisan poor. Low-income, mainly black, who believe in the Democratic
Party as a vehicle for social change.
6. Passive poor. The older God-and-Country Democrats who have a strong faith
in America and an uncritical attitude toward its institutions but favor
social spending.
7. By-standers. Those who are mainly young, white and poorly educated and who
show almost no interest in politics.
8. Upbeats. Young, optimistic moderates who lean toward the Republicans.
9. Disaffected. Middle-aged, pessimistic working class who, even though they
have Democratic roots, lean toward the Republicans.
10. Seculars. Affluent and highly educated but lacking religious convictions;
committed to personal freedom and peace.
11. Followers. Poor, young, uninformed blue-collar workers with little
religious commitment and limited interest in politics.

"Golden" rules

Your aides have to determine the “theme of the day” and brief you about
the day’s events and issues. To get elected you must promise economic
growth with low inflation and balanced budget no matter how grave the
economic situation is.
Don’t be too specific on issues and tell people they elect their way, not a
Cite the Bible.
Don’t look too intellectual.
State repeatedly that you’re not going to divide the nation into supporters
and enemies, Democrats and Republicans, “my voters and other voters” —
be a leader to all. (But first, to win the nomination you must appeal to the
more liberal sections of your party if you are Democrat, and to more
conservative sections if you belong to Republicans).
Don’t talk much; transform your thoughts into examples and slogans.
Never say you want power, even if you want to save the nation in crisis.
Never talk down on big business. Promise federal financing, especially in
economic downturns.
Remember: voters are extremely sensitive to tax-cut proposals and which
social segment would benefit from them. The middle class brings you victory,
so promise tax cuts for these people, with tax increases for the wealthy and
high unemployment rates.
Even if the economy is OK, point out the signs of coming crisis and promise
to change the situation fast. Keep talking about problems, though it’s hard
to win if the incumbent President runs for re-election with balanced budget
and economic growth.
You can be liberal on domestic issues, but you have to be conservative on
national security (defense and foreign affairs).

What to talk about where
Iowa, New Hampshire - farm problems, energy costs, trade issues
Northern “rustbelt” states - industrial concerns
Southern states - defense and social issues
New York State - unemployment

Use these tactics:

1.“Join the crowd” — this reinforces people’s natural desire to be
on the winning side and it is used to convince the audience that your program
is an expression of the nation’s desire for change, and it is in their best
interest to join;
2. “Provoked disapproval” — persuade a target audience to disapprove
your opponent’s message by suggesting that the message is popular with
groups hated, feared or held in contempt by the target audience;
3. “Iinevitable victory” — you invite those who did not join majority;
4. “Neuro-linguistic programming” — you will be elected if you can do
this better than your opponent and program the whole nation for a positive
reaction. People always try to avoid anything and anybody unpleasant; and
people are always looking for pleasant things and other pleasant people,
somebody they want to meet again and again or at least see on TV. Everybody
wants to be a winner; and to be a winner brings pleasure and self respect.
Just convey this sense to the nation:
“Vote for me and you win!” or
“Vote for me or you lose!”
“The choice is yours!”

Now, you have to be the first to install this program in the voters’
minds and the other candidate has no chance.

Chapter 2. The White House

The White House costs us $ 1 billion a year.
The US President is paid $400,000 a year. He is the only person in the White
House and in Washington, DC who deserves every penny of his salary.

With the election you are transformed into the most powerful person in the
world, leader of America, Head of State, Head of the Executive Branch,
Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces and Chief Diplomat. It’s a tough
job. It’s an unimaginable responsibility. Let us look step by step through
the problems, crises, mistakes to success and professional presidential
style. If you were a Governor or a Senator before, stop acting like Governor
or Senator and become President. Unfortunately, most Presidents can’t get
rid of their previous working and personal style, act slow and bring chaos to
the White House, especially during their first term (which could be the
last). I’m sure you’ll be different. Relax, be pleasant, and never, even
for a second, think about yourself as a historic figure. From now on you live
in a goldfish bowl — stared at, studied and investigated.

2.1 Iron-Clad Rules for the President
Be strong.
Be attractive.
Be logical

2.2 Presidential Calendar

Time is your #1 value — learn how to run it properly through your White
House staff. Divide your life in the White House into two 4-year-long terms
and then divide your term into cycles. All you have to do during your first
term is to take care of the second one — that’s your agenda. The second
term’s agenda is to set your place in the world’s history.

First year. You have enough public support to start big initiatives.
Presidents have a “honeymoon,” some period after the inauguration, up to
3 months, when the opposition party refrains from attacks and Congress is
inclined to support you too. This is a nice time for unrealistic public
expectations, so set a national agenda right away and declare strong
initiative on tax and budget issues.
Attention: once the first 100 days are gone (productive opening period), the
media hounds will start baying. Once 180 days are past — Congress starts
biting! President Kennedy said once: “I made two mistakes during my first
year. One was Cuba. The other one was letting it be known that I read as much
as I do.”
Second year. Develop your initiatives. It’s a time when inevitable public
disappointment comes after high expectations. Your proposals inevitably
antagonize certain interest groups and your popularity declines, because some
groups develop into consistent winners and others — into consistent losers.
You have to help your party with mid-term elections when the entire House and
one-third of the Senate is up for re-election — it’s the best indicator
of the nation’s approval or disapproval of your presidency. (But if you are
not popular at the time, don’t show up in public often and don’t
“help” certain candidates. George W. Bush ignored this rule and
Republicans lost the House of Representatives in 2006). If you fail to do
what you plan in the first two years, better get it done fast!
Third year. Go, go public preparing your re-election. Presidents often lose
voters during this period.
Fourth year. All-politics year. Try to achieve some important international
agreement (a treaty) for the historic record. Win re-election.

Divide each year into 2 cycles:
1st cycle — late autumn and early winter prepare State of the Union Address
to Congress, new legislation and budget recommendations.
2nd cycle — in late winter and spring promote these proposals and prepare
for annual “Big Eight” summit.

Then, thirteen appropriations bills must be passed each year to keep the
federal government operating:
1. Agriculture, rural development and related agencies.
2. Commerce, Justice and the judiciary, State and related agencies.
3. Defense.
4. District of Columbia.
5. Energy and water development.
6. Foreign assistance and related programs.
7. Interior and related agencies.
8. Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education.
9. Legislative branch for Congress’s own operations.
10. Military construction.
11. Transportation and related agencies.
12. Treasury, Postal Service and general government agencies.
13. Veterans Affairs, Housing and Urban Development, and independent agencies

In the nine months leading up to the October 1 start of the federal
government fiscal year, you and Congress must meet several deadlines to
ensure that the money needed to operate the government will be available when
the fiscal year begins:
- the first Monday in February, you have to submit budget requests.
- April 15 is the target date for the House and Senate to agree on a budget
resolution setting guidelines for spending and taxes.
- on May 15, House Appropriations Committee and subcommittees begin acting on
spending bills
- during the summer and early fall, House-State conferences resolve
differences between their versions of the appropriations bills
- October 1 is the drop-dead date for you to sign appropriations bills into

There are also several important activities that somehow were left out of
the Constitution’s description of the President’s functions. As Head of
State you represent the American people on ceremonial occasions. You have to:
- light the national Christmas tree
- preside over the Easter egg roll on the White House lawn
- hold receptions to honor Americans who have won international prizes, such
as the Nobel Prize
- greet astronauts returning after their missions
- give out the Presidential Medal of Freedom
- give recognition to charities like American Cancer society
- attend funerals of foreign Heads of State (you can send Vice President,
Secretary of State or one of the former US Presidents in some cases)
- honor the war dead by laying wreaths at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on
Memorial Day and veterans Day
- issue proclamations each year celebrating national holidays such as
Thanksgiving Day and Independence Day

You can use ceremonial occasions to campaign for your reelection, make policy
proposals, create an atmosphere of confidence and promote patriotism and
national pride. Presidents who neglect ceremonial duties may find they have
more time to develop policy and actually run the government, but they are
sacrificing a tool of leadership that can be used not only to inspire the
nation to greater accomplishments, but also to improve their own popularity.
You can also manipulate your political calendar for electoral advantage.
It’s OK if your popularity declines after the first year in the Office.
Most important is year number 3, which starts the reelection campaign.

Divide your week into days.
Monday and Tuesday — decide plans and priorities for the week (with senior
White House staff, Secretaries and Congress leaders). Limit those who can see
you every morning to the top three — Chief of Staff, National Security
Adviser and your scheduler.
Wednesday, Thursday, Friday — guide execution and make decisions. Don’t
forget about your weekly radio address.

Divide your day into hours and minutes.
General rule is 30% of your weekly hours go to senior White House staff, 10%
— to Cabinet, 5% — to Congress members, 5% — to foreign leaders.
No matter what, even if it’s a war time, sleep one hour during the day to
give your brain a break, and finish your day at 6 P.M. After 6 P.M. do not
read any documents, do not take any phone calls, do not talk to anybody but
family members and close friends. Most presidents are manipulated by their
aides, overwork themselves and fail to reach the age to which they were
expected to live at the time of their election.
And — eat whatever you want, but you must know that the more calories you
have to digest, the slower you think.
Have a strategy for the last day of your presidency — maybe you’d like to
pardon some convicted criminals, either to soften your image, make some more
useful friends - or to make life more difficult for your rivals.

2.3 "Golden" rules

1. You are a national image (a national ideal based on pseudo-facts). You are
supposed to be a symbol of national unity, national continuity and the symbol
of federal government. You have to be a religious person and affirm religious
values and set a moral example.
Leadership is the first quality Americans look for in you - they want a
President who is steadfast in his convictions. You are done with elections,
but you are not done with your image.
2. The power to control the federal budget is your top prerogative.
3. Whom are you going to be? Make a choice:
- utopist (ideas manipulator)
- manager (Government and Congress manipulator)
- challenger (reformer)
4. Any problem turns into a political one if it threatens your power.
5. Use your legal right to press the nation and illegal ones to press the
world to eliminate problems.
4. Once you’re in politics, you are a hostage of your status and you must
sacrifice privacy in return for power.
6. Never play alone - you are power as part of a group.
7. All your decisions are risk taking ones (any decision brings a problem).
You may ask advice before you make a decision, but don’t listen to anybody
afterwards. You are not paid for the quantity of your work but for leadership
and ultimate decision making. (If your adviser approaches you with a fresh
idea, ask him why isn’t everyone else using it).
8. Correct political mistakes before they became political scandals, but
avoid any rush - think three times and check ten times before you sign
anything (emergency is a loss of control).
9. No easy matter will come to you as President - if they are easy they
should be settled at lower levels. Don’t trust those who work too much and
who push you too often (people who try to influence you go to your advisers,
because they know you listen to the people close to you).
10. Never blame previous Presidents for the problems they left for you -
that’s a sign of weakness.
11. Get rid of a White House tradition to deal with problems only if they
“knock at the door.”

Your priorities are:

1. Economic policy: government taxing and spending, regulation and promotion
of business, monetary supply, agriculture support.
2. Social policy: income security, housing, health care, education
3. Civil rights and liberties policy: discrimination prevention; voting
rights and basic liberties
4. Natural resources & environmental policy: clear air and water, wildlife
protection, national parks, public lands, water resources
5. Foreign & national security: new weapons systems, troop levels, military
alliances, intelligence activities, foreign aid, foreign trade, treaties,
relations with foreign governments, immigration

2.4 The Media

There are two power centers in the United States — TV and Washington, DC.
Just as the press needs the White House to carry out its functions as the
collector and interpreter of news and information, so the White House needs
the press to spread its message. Your popularity depends on the amount of
good and bad news about your administration’s policy dispensed by the
media. No straight answers! If you rule the media, you rule America.

Press Conference

A press conference is the US President’s conference to proffer news items
to the press, and not the press’s conference with the President. Behave
like a king and they will take you for a king.
Don’t let reporters provoke you into making any promise or statement
unprepared; talk about the “bad” issues before they ask you to; never say
“I don’t know” but say: “The problem is under study” instead.
“Cool off” reporters by re-asking the question in terms that allow you to
answer it more easily.
Evade a question by pleading inability to reply on grounds of national
Change the tone and direction of the questioning by calling on a reporter
with a reputation for asking “soft” questions. (Better yet, to show off
your achievements answer a question that wasn’t asked).
Use press conferences to influence public opinion and to understand public
opinion judging by the questions.
Don’t schedule any press conferences during an international crisis — as
a rule, they inflame the situation. But you really need press conferences
when your polls go down.
Your Press Secretary has to be exceptionally articulate, smart and loyal,
because he is your image and echo. He is in charge of the news management and
that includes:
a) daily briefings to announce the President’s initiatives and positions,
appointments or pending legislation. In such a way the White House, not the
media, sets the news agenda for the day (the “story of the day”).
Reporters have to buy it because they need pictures. Your Press Secretary may
also provide special “backgrounder” briefings for reporters to explain
certain initiatives (these briefings may go “on the record,” meaning that
the remarks may be quoted and the source identified, “on background,” in
which the source can’t be identified, “on deep background” when
attribution of any sort is prohibited, and “off record,” in which
information given to reporters may not be included in their stories and is
mainly provided for their guidance. Briefing sources may range from the
President personally to Cabinet members, the White House staff and policy
b) stonewalling - “No comment.”
c) any bad news should be released on late Friday nights when media
organizations are minimally staffed and news is likely to draw less public
attention over the weekend.
d) staged events:
- exclusive interviews to selective reporters from major news organizations,
those who are known to be sympathetic toward the administration
- private interviews to Washington-based foreign correspondents from
countries that are scheduled to be visited. In such a way you set the stage
for your visit and define your objectives and expectations on your own terms.
e) private contacts with media (the best way to build media support).
f) keeping a “black list” of reporters who don’t report favorably on
the President and his policy.

Because of the Press Secretary’s closeness to members of the news media, he
is able to pick up public opinion trends and issues. The Office of
Communications, that monitors the print and electronic media for stories of
interest to the White House, has to bring you a one-page report every day.
You can get as much attention as you want. You are the most public figure in
the world and everything you are doing and talking about inside and outside
the White House has to be recorded. Every time you leave the White House you
have to choose the right place or event, or accept the right invitation and
deliver the message which is most important now. You rule the situation if
you rule the flow of information, and if you can’t control events use your
power to control the flow of information and give the first interpretation of
You are the White House boss but not the Washington, DC chief — you need
the back up of public opinion for the next four years at least; but you must
centralize policy making in the White House no matter what!

2.5 Hiring and firing

The appointment power is an extremely important tool enabling you to gain
control of your administration and direct national policy. Numbers first:
1,125 Presidential appointees require Senate confirmation, including 185
Ambassadors, 94 District Attorneys, 94 US Marshals. (The Senate, though, may
use its confirmation power as a political bargaining trick and “put on
hold” your nominee until you agree to do them a favor — actually, they
keep him a political hostage).
Office of Presidential Personnel makes decisions or recommends President’s
actions on 5842 jobs. Ten forms must be executed by the candidate, including
a White House personal data statement, a waiver permitting the review of past
tax returns, FBI questionnaire, a financial disclosure statement for the
Office of Government Ethics so that identify possible conflicts of interests.

"Golden" rules

Avoid criminals, drug addicts, alcoholics, homosexuals. All come with a risk
of future embarrassments.
Avoid widespread mistake of hiring staff and the Cabinet judging by
communication abilities and not by professional skills; remember —
efficiency is low if staff consists of old or young people only.
Do not hire your wife, please; or anyone else who cannot be fired.
Look through previous administrations’ lists, talk to chairs of Congress
committees, college professors (law, economics, national security), big
business (friends, partners, donors). Pressure from your congressional
supporters will influence most of your appointments.
Do not hire independent persons, no matter how experienced they are.
Follow the quotas (one black Secretary and one Latino)
Interview key positions candidates in person (Chief of Staff and his
Deputies, all Assistants, Secretaries and Deputy Secretaries, federal
agencies chiefs, US Ambassadors) and use the following criteria:
- commitment to your philosophy and program
- integrity and personal qualifications
- experience and skills
- no personal agenda
- toughness needed to fight the Washington establishment (Congress + media +
interest groups)
Give key positions to your campaign donors and team members who showed to you
personal loyalty. No key positions go to another political party members.
It’s advisable that you give a Secretary of Defense position to somebody
who is expert in weapons systems and defense budgeting.
Find jobs for some defeated Congress members. Please.
Don’t hesitate to hire a personal assistant on any problem .
Talk straight and demand loyalty .
It’s good to take newly appointed Cabinet members and senior White House
staff to Camp David for some informal meeting, drinks and the first open
discussion on your future policy.

2.6 The White House Staff

Starting with President Franklin Roosevelt, the trend has been for
Presidents to act through the Executive Office of the President or the
National Security Council rather than through the Cabinet. This has created a
situation n which the White House Chief of Staff, the Director of the Office
of Management and Budget and the National Security Advisor are more powerful
than some Cabinet members.
The Executive Office of the President is headed by the White House Chief of
Staff and consists of the immediate staff of the President, as well as
multiple levels of support staff reporting to the President, total of 1,800
full-time equivalent employees. Senior staff within the Office have the
title “Assistant to the President”, second-level staff have the title
“Deputy Assistant to the President” and third-level staff have the title
“Special Assistant to the President”.

2.6.1 The White House staff serves to:
- protect your political interests
- act as principal political advisers
- distill information and provide a perspective from which the President can
make an informed decision
- direct the implementation of your priorities by the bureaucracy
- process important political and economic information and process ideas
coming from Congress, events and crisis situations, executive branch
agencies, public opinion, party, interest groups, media and most important
— from President and staff (ideas always have to be politically attractive)
- operate effectively inside the White House triangle: the President’s
schedule — the flow of papers — the press. The most powerful figures in
the White House are senior staff because they provide information for your
decisions, evaluate policy proposals by Cabinet Secretaries, control
activities of the executive branch, maintain liaison and lobby the Congress,
interest groups, party leaders and media and control access (and information)
to you — that’s what the Chief of Staff is doing (remember — there is
no person # 2).

Here they are:

Chief of Staff to the President
Assistant to the President & Deputy Chief of Staff
Assistants to the President:
National Security
Senior Adviser
National Economic Council
Domestic Policy Council
Press Secretary
Counsel to the President
Homeland Security
Presidential Personnel
Legislative Affairs
Intergovernmental Affairs
Staff Secretary
Political Affairs
Cabinet Secretary
Public Liaison
Director of Presidential Scheduling
Director of Speechwriting
Chief of Staff to the First Lady
Director of Advance Management, Administration & Oval Office Operations

Executive Agencies:
Director, Office of Administration
Chair, Council of Economic Advisers
Director, Office of Management and Budget

Chief of Staff
The Chief of Staff reviews most of the documents that go to you, gives his
advice after intense information processing and consultations with other
agencies and then — he’s telling others what President wants. A lot of
people, including Congressmen and Senators, will try to reach you through
him. He has to give good instructions to the Press Secretary on the White
House message about current headlines and the President’s plans and actions
(the Press Secretary works the same way with VP and First Lady press teams).
He is responsible for your time and has to plan at least two months ahead
your effective activity together with Communications, Scheduling and other
policy offices’ Directors plus VP and First Lady Chiefs of Staff.
Besides, he has to do “dirty jobs” for the President like firing people
or act as a “lighting rod” to draw criticism away from the President.
National Security Adviser
The National Security Adviser controls all the documents concerning national
security coming from Defense, State Departments and national security
agencies, and coordinates these offices. His position is not subject to
Senate confirmation, which, according to a long-standing Washington
tradition, means that he can’t be compelled to testify before the Congress.
He decides what papers the President should see and, what’s more, he gives
his comments on any document. (National security is 100% the President’s
business, so keep this figure at some distance and don’t let him think of
himself as your Number Two — foreign leaders will try to work through him
to get to you or to influence you.) He has to oversee the functioning of the
National Security Council (NSC), which is your foreign policy making tool and
a “government inside government.” This is something very special and
convenient about the NSC — it’s responsible only to you and there’s not
much Congress control over its budget. Of course, the National Security
Adviser is involved in every meeting between you and any foreign leader and
is responsible for the schedule.

The most powerful of executive offices after the National Security Council is
the Office of Management and Budget (it’s authorized to make cuts in
federal agencies’ budgets, to advise you on national fiscal and economic
policies, supervise execution of the government budget, evaluate the
performance of federal programs).

Staffers (and Secretaries) prefer stability and don’t like it if you’re
“rocking the boat” — that’s why they often play reform-stoppers. They
don’t like to work hard and prefer to send you on “very important
visits” abroad as often as possible. They try to load you up with an
extremely busy schedule and “feed” you hundreds of useless documents,
create artificial problems and conflicts to show off their hyper-activity.
They try to be your decision makers and they do influence you because, unlike
Secretaries, they have daily contact with you; that’s why you don’t see
Cabinet members as your principal aides. They try to set you up by
interpreting your decisions and orders in their own way, as every Adviser is
the “American President himself.” They know you won’t accept
“complicated,” “expensive,” “risky” projects and they try to sell
you “simple,” “cheap” and “popular” ones only.
Watch your senior staff and how they present ideas. If somebody wants to
push his idea or a project, he will give you three options, making two of
them unattractive. Naturally you pick the one he presented as least harmful.

2.6.2 "Golden" rules of the White House Staff :

1. Fight for access (influence) to President or to people with direct access
(aiming to get a better position if President is re-elected).
2. Isolate government from the President.
3. Influence = relationship with the President.
4. Get a table in the West Wing. You are nobody if you are stuck in the White
House basement and see the President by appointment only.
5. Before you send a document to the President, have to look at it and ask
yourself if it’s too immoral or too radical.
6. Never say “no” aloud to anybody.
7. Remain anonymous with conflicts.
8. Never bring bad news to the President - let it be some idiot, not you.
9. Never say “That’s impossible,” no matter what the President is
asking you to do.
10. Disappear (and find an excuse later) if the President is in a bad mood.
11. Never ague with the President if there’s somebody else present.
12. Learn how the President likes to do business (talking, giving orders,
writing the documents and taking notes, managing official and non-official
meetings) and his habits (food, drinks, cigarettes, favorite sport, movies,
show business stars, writers, politicians; attitude to women) and try to copy
him — the President has to feel comfortable with you.
13. Fight anybody who’s trying to do your job to be closer to the
14. Avoid taking on risky tasks controlled by the President in person (if
necessary, try to “delegate” it to somebody else).
15. Avoid being associated with any failures.
16. Don’t say anything President doesn’t want to hear.
17. Use “Smith’s Principle”: if it can be understood by Congress,
it’s not finished yet.
18. Write memorandums not to inform the reader, but to protect the writer.
19. No matter what subject is under discussion, employ the language of sports
and war: say “breakthrough” instead of “progress” , never speak of
compromise, consider “adopting a fallback position.”
20. Every public appearance in with the President is an investment in your
career after the White House.
21. Minimize the number of rivals.
22. Gain independence according to how much the President needs you.
23. Before asking the President for some personal favor, make him believe
he’s going to get some (political) profit out of it.
24. Tell the President what he can do and help him try to do it, and never
tell him what he shouldn’t do.
25. Avoid giving any personal gifts to the President if you are not Chief of
Every public appearance in with the President is an investment in your career
after the White House.

There is an open power struggle between national security staff members and
domestic policy staff and between those who develop new policies and
initiatives versus budget staff.

2.6.3 How to Manage the Staff

Adopt a dominant management style:

1. Pyramidal, structured as hierarchy with you at the top, followed by the
Chief of Staff and other key assistants — I strongly recommend this one —
it insures a clear chain of command and provides precise channels of
information going up and directives going down. It permits specialization at
the lower levels and control at the top. Besides, those higher up in the
system are able to provide you with more accurate information in a timely
manner, while filtering out and eliminating unnecessary information. (The
problem is — nobody wants to bring you important bad news).
2. Circular, when you are surrounded by advisers, all of whom have
approximately equal access to the Oval Office. That usually means too much
access and chaos, and overloading you with information — 99% of which
should not appear on your table (per JFK).

All your assistants are political assistants and everyone will try to play a
policy-maker. But a good thing is - all of them were not elected and are
responsible to you only. Thus you can:
- reform your staff freely as there’s not even a word about it in the US
- interchange key figures if domestic crisis is approaching
- if you don’t agree with the staff on important issues, go to polls for
back-up. (The best employee is the one you can blackmail. Besides, a very
good “pusher” for your people is their deep understanding that they have
to work together to help the President stay in office next term — if the
President leaves, everybody leaves)
- use “the carrot and the stick”
- use “pulling by pushing” — give an important job without publicity to
those who become too popular
- do as little reading as you can — you have staff for that
- do as little writing as you can — same reason
- involve yourself personally in your staff and Cabinet jobs as little as you
can — same reason
- make no minor decisions — same reason
- send back any intelligence or other report if it’s more than one sheet
of paper

2.7 The Cabinet

If the bureaucrats are wearing you down, you have the right to fire any
Secretary. However, Cabinet members must be approved by Senate, therefore,
you have to negotiate with the Senate leaders and party leaders throughout
the country. As a result, some positions may go to people you don’t know
well and can’t trust. Then if you want to re-organize the Cabinet you have
to confront the Congress, because Congress tries to protect the interests of
its constituents, who are often the clients of the existing bureaucratic
agencies. So, if you plan changes you have to appoint people who share your
You may also need to offer a position to a group that you need to support in
the coming election, or whose help you need; or to help pass legislation
(these people will be more loyal to their political benefactors than to you).
Secretaries have disadvantages compared to the staffers as they don’t
have easy access to the Oval Office (again, that depends on you). Some of
them had little or no contact with you before being appointed. Actually,
their task is to win the backing of key interest groups and that’s why you,
practically speaking, don’t need Cabinet meetings (if there’s no crisis).
If a Cabinet member feels independent (usually, that’s the Secretary of
State), don’t fire him - substitute him by the national security adviser or
send him abroad on a regular basis .
Six positions have Cabinet-level rank, which allows these individuals to
attend Cabinet meetings: Vice President, White House Chief of Staff,
Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, Director of the Office
of Management and Budget, Director of the National Drug Control Policy,
United States Trade Representative
The Cabinet members work hard during a crisis only. They prefer to save
their plans and suggestions for private conversations with you, because that
is what you need them for and they are competing with other Secretaries for
your time, support and for funds. It’s not easy for the President to make
government agencies work effectively — first, you have no time, second -
they have no competition. Anyway, you must have insiders in all departments,
especially in the Justice Department (FBI), CIA and Secret Service firing
anybody who’s trying to dig dirt on you.

2.7.1 Secretary of Defense
The Secretary of Defense is a very special and unique position for many
reasons. This department is regarded a non-political one, defending the
United States no matter what (never let him decide, though, what and where US
interests are). Military leaders have a lot of friends in Congress who press
the administration to accept military demands. Besides, it’s not easy to
manage the Pentagon, as you depend on the military for evaluations of the
national military capacities; they decide also what kinds of weapons to buy
and build. Half of the federal budget goes to Pentagon, making it a major
department and that’s the most frustrating aspect of your management.
You have to find compromise between you, Congress, public opinion, interest
groups and defense contractors’ lobbyists.
The defense budget affects diplomacy and international relations, because
governments worldwide scrutinize it for clues about US global intentions. For
example, increases in defense spending, particularly for items such as naval
vessels and aircraft, may signal a White House intention to pursue more
aggressive foreign policies, and cuts in defense spending may indicate an
effort to scale back on defense commitments.

2.7.2 The Cabinet’s Hidden Structure-
The Cabinet is divided into the inner circle (State, Defense, Treasury,
Justice) and outer, less important one (Interior, Agriculture, Commerce,
Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing, Transportation, Energy, Education,
Veterans Affairs, Homeland Security). While inner Cabinet members are
selected more on the basis of personal friendship and loyalty, outer Cabinet
members are selected more on the basis of geographical, ethnic or political
representation and adopt an advocacy position for their Departments.
The inner Cabinet is divided into two groups:
а) national security group (State and Defense Departments).
b) legal-economic group (Justice and Treasury Departments). The Attorney
General usually serves as the president’s attorney and this special
responsibility leads to close personal contact with the President. The
Secretary of Treasury is very important in domestic monetary and fiscal
policies and international trade and currency.
The outer Cabinet is a “domestic” group. Don’t waste your time
meeting them - you have enough staffers for that. Sometimes “outer”
Secretaries try to build their political base of support within their own
bureaucracies. Don’t hesitate to fire and replace any of them if they start
to criticize you and behave politically independent, counting on bureaucratic
and interest groups’ support.
There’s one (negative for you) thing in common between all Secretaries -
self-interest pushes them to protect and expand their departments and then
they act more like representatives of their departments to the President then
the presidential envoys they were appointed to be (“divided loyalty”).
Then Secretaries of State and Defense usually form a coalition against your
National Security Adviser. You must be a smart mediator as
Commander-in-Chief. These two have weekly meetings, and each of them has a
weekly meeting with the DNI (Director of National Intelligence), so you must
know from independent sources what they are talking about in case they
“forget” to tell you the details. The Defense Secretary meets weekly
with the Joint Chiefs, too.

Line of succession to the Presidency of the United States
Vice President

Speaker of the House of Representatives
Senate president pro tempore.
Secretary of Defense
Secretary of State
Secretary of Treasury
Attorney General
Secretary of Homeland Security
Secretary of Interior
Secretary of Agriculture
Secretary of Commerce
Secretary of Labor
Secretary of Health and Human Services
Secretary of Housing and urban Development
Secretary of Transportation
Secretary of Energy
Secretary of Education

2.8 Strategic Planning

That’s the biggest problem for all administrations. Strategic planning is
the process of making present decisions based on very well-calculated future
consequences. The basic strategic objective is a decision as to where to
concentrate the government efforts — this is the essence of strategic
The worst example of strategic planning is the war in Iraq.
It is crucial to choose a professional crew and place people in positions
where their brains will work effectively and produce quality.

Planning formula:
- design strategy
- amplify and clarify strategy into policy
- organize a team
- guide execution
- make final strategic decision

A. Regular Planning Model:
subject, concept, idea definition of objectives
design of innovative options and debate
exploration of concepts, claims and possibilities
development of program outlines
establishment of expected performance criteria and indications
information gathering
integration of ideological elements
assignment of executive responsibility
analysis and experiment
experiment evaluation, examination of likely consequences
comparison of expected and actual performance levels
determination of costs
strategic decision
B. Express planning: information interpretation, projects design, choice of a
project, decision
C. Regular (math) model:
Negotiations planning (example): pressure, compromise, tricks, break.
Let’s evaluate "pressure": negative international reaction /-1/, breakdown
/-1/ ,positive effect /+1/. Score: -2+1=-1 Conclusion: no pressure should be
D. Expertise model.
Government crisis (example): poor planning- wrong decisions- wrong actions-
wrong execution- opposition activation- mass protests- coup
E. Scale model.
Risk factors: Risk levels:
Intenational sanctions medium
High inflation rise medium to high
High unemployment medium to high
Low public support level(low polls) medium

2.9 Presidential decision making rules:
1. Decision making is a multiple choice process.
2. Any decision involves political risk.
3. If you can’t make a decision, you need more information.
4. Be optimistic, but remain realistic.
5. Give yourself a deadline.
6. No brainstorming chaos.
7. There are two kinds of decisions: irreversible and reversible. Better know
which kind you are facing.

Here’s the process:
a) Identify the problem
b) Analyze the problem — what are the facts?
c) Evaluate options — what are the pros and cons? what can go wrong?
d) Identify choices — which alternative is the best?
e) Implement plans — what action needs to be taken?


Psychological Modeling of a President (Strategic Intelligence Method)

Intelligence services worldwide watch political leaders during public
appearances, trying to calculate their physical and mental health judging by
their look and behavior. In the US they also evaluate the executives and
staffers who surround the President at official meetings to calculate
what’s going on in the White House.
They look at:
- a very detailed biography
- personal needs, interests, philosophy
- political views
- intelligence, will-power, character, abilities
- behavior in crisis situations
- compromising facts and possible methods of influence
- personal, political and big business VIP connections
- financial situation
- administration and team
- political opposition and President
- Congress

Chapter 3. Domestic Policy

You can’t separate domestic and foreign policies because they are married
to the same ugly guy — the budget deficit.
Domestic policy rests on three legs: education, health and environment.
Americans will never support reduced funding for education, Social Security
and Medicare (Medicaid) cuts and weakened environmental-protection laws. But
I strongly advise you — don’t bother trying to emulate Europe and the
British Commonwealth by providing health care for all - the privately insured
middle class (your voting majority) won’t stand for it. If you don’t
believe me, go to the polls.
Now, are you a challenger in politics? If “yes,” strengthen your
political positions in Washington, DC first, then start some reforms. Before
you start a reform you have to win the information war with your opponents
and get public support. A reform is always a venture; the process may start
taking on momentum and you won’t be able to stop it. You had better
continue old reforms using a new tactic because new reforms bring new
problems, new enemies and new mistakes, and big economic mistakes bring you
an economic crises.

3.1 Dealing with big business .

1. Big organized money moves big political machines, big political machines
move big lobbies, big lobbies move the President.
2. The President is an investment.
3. A group that rules the economy rules the White House.
4. A new political course comes not with a new President, but a change of big
business’ global financial interests.
5. Follow 3 "golden rules":
- protect big investments
- help to promote
- don’t interfere.
6. If the government doesn’t meet the needs of big business, it forms a new
one of its own (something like a President’s Council). This usually happens
when the President can’t provide financial stability and super-profits.
Besides, big business has much more important foreign connections than the
7. Big business is:
a) money
b) political and economic control
8. Any political action gets an economic (big business) reaction.

In terms of partisan politics, Republicans are considered to be more
sympathetic to big business interests while traditionally Democrats get
electoral and financial support from organized labor.
Forget about antitrust policy business has become more global and efforts to
enforce antitrust policies have proven deficient and are threats to national

3.2 The Economy

Economic strategy is as important as national security.
Appoint bright, educated and experienced people to the Cabinet and the
Federal Reserve Board, who advise you on important economic decisions.
Press foreign governments on trade and currency issues.
Watch the markets 24/7.
Balance the budget (half goes to national defense - if there’s no war there
are no jobs in America - 35% of US business works for Pentagon.

In general, the key word in domestic policy is accomplishment — budget
balanced, taxes cut, jobs created. Use your budget power to the full extent
because people usually hold you, not Congress, accountable for economic
downturns. Whether you win or lose your second term in the Oval Office
largely depends on your budget actions.

3.2.1 Managing the Economy

1.Regulate spending, taxation, monetary policy and foreign trade whichit has
to be under strict political control - you have the right to propose
legislation and veto any legislation you think incorrect. Keep in mind that
Americans always insist on reducing government spending on foreign aid and
space exploration, and they naturally hate any rise in taxes.
2.State and local governments, both through national associations like the US
Conference of Mayors and Congress Members, always press the government to get
more federal funds even at the expense of inflationary budget deficits.
3.Keep unemployment low and prices stable - these two factors are politically
dangerous and failure here can bring a free-fall in approval ratings.
4.Take credit for economic growth, price stability and low unemployment even
if you have nothing to do with it.

Still have problems? Try international initiatives.

There are four inevitable factors that will limit your control over the

1) You must share power with Congress — you can’t levy taxes or
appropriate money all by yourself;
2) The theoretical nature of the science of economics — no single economic
theory has ever explained the behavior of the economy in the future;
3) The imprecision of economic information. Economic statistics and
indicators do not measure the immediate conditions of the economy, but rather
the conditions that prevailed between one and three months ago, depending on
the particular economic statistics. Consequently, if you take action on the
basis of incoming economic information you may be reacting to a problem that
no longer exists or that is much worse than believed.
4) There are forces outside the reach of the federal government, like
international factors (oil prices and foreign trade policies), state and
local governments economic decisions and mistakes, big business decisions
that affect employment, inflation, the trade deficit and public opinion —
which is always against cutting social programs.

3.2.2 Budget Deficit

A large budget deficit is a headache and has extremely negative effects on
the economy:
1. It limits the government’s flexibility to fight a possible recession;
that requires tax cuts and deficit spending, which would exacerbate the debt
problem. Since tax revenues fall during a recession and unemployment
insurance and welfare payments rise, the budget would be under further strain
precisely when deficit spending would be needed to pull the economy up.
2. It reduces the amount of funds available for achieving the nation’s
social and defense goals, because interest must be paid on the national debt.
3. It can threaten the economy by “crowding out” corporate and private
borrowers from the credit market. Because the government must borrow heavily
to finance its deficit, it competes with business and individuals to borrow
funds. The increased competition forces interest rates higher, causing loans
(including mortgages) to become more expensive. As a result, business can
afford to purchase less plant and equipment to expand and modernize their
operations and fewer consumers can afford to finance purchases of expensive
items, such as houses and cars. The resulting reduction in demand threatens
economic growth.
4. The US budget deficit has become so large that domestic savings no longer
can provide enough capital to service the debt. Consequently, the government
must borrow from foreign sources to make up the difference. This makes us
dependent on foreign investors and raises the possibility of a
“stabilization crisis,” which can occur if foreign investors lose
confidence in the dollar and liquidate their US investments. Such a crisis
could cause the dollar to plummet and interest and inflation to rapidly

3.2.3 Crises

Crises means that your government as a system is exhausted and it’s
unable to rule the nation and resources effectively in an extreme situation,
including economic, natural catastrophes and war. A crisis has three stages
— before the crisis, when the first signs appear; crisis development until
culmination; catastrophe followed by impeachment. A crisis could be
“programmed” at the very beginning of your term (mistakes in political
and economic courses, inexperienced personnel, faulty planning) or it can
appear later (too many mistakes, change of political environment, shifts in
the economic or international situation). Crisis management includes
pre-crisis management and handling of the situation. You must be ready not
only for a government crisis but also for sudden military attack, mass riots
and natural disasters.

International trade is an important component of national security. Our
“friends” (NATO members, Saudi Arabia and Japan) favor a dollar (that is
neither overvalued nor undervalued) and a healthy US economy with relatively
full employment and low inflation rate. If the dollar is weak, the value of
much of their international currency reserves declines and their goods are
less competitive in the US market. If the dollar is too strong, their
investment capital migrates to the US and the high competitiveness of their
products in the US market threatens to provoke calls for trade restrictions.
If unemployment in the US rises, the major market for their goods declines.
If interest rates are higher in the US than in Europe or Japan, investment
capital moves to our country. Consequently, foreign governments press the
United States to keep the exchange value of the dollar from fluctuating
widely and to hold interest rates steady.

3.3 Domestic Propaganda and Mind Control

To effectively manage propaganda you must understand that most political
views are acquired through political socialization and the most important
influences in this process are the following.

1.Family. If both parents identify with one party, there’s strong
likelihood that the children will begin their political life with the same
party preference.
2.Education. School is a transmitter of patriotism. University is a
transmitter of liberalism.
3.Religion. Roman Catholic respondents tend to be more liberal on economic
issues than Protestants. Jewish arthe most liberal and vote mostly
Democratic. Many Northern white Protestants vote Republican, whereas northern
white Roman Catholics vote Democratic.
4.Economic status. Poor people vote Democratic. Rich vote Republican.
5.Political events. The war in Iraq divided the nation one-two-three.
6.Influence of opinion leaders. Those are people who have, as part of their
job, the task of swaying people’s views (politicians and media). Their
interest lies in defining the political agenda in such a way that discussions
about policy options will take place on their terms.
7.Media. There seems to be no strongly partisan or ideological bias in TV
coverage, although the visual and mental images conveyed by TV have a
powerful impact.
8.Race. African Americans tend to be more liberal than white on social
welfare issues, civil liberties and even foreign policy. They strongly
support democrats.
9.Political culture (the set of beliefs and values regarding the political
system that are widely shared by the citizens of a nation). Here the most
important for us are the degrees of political trust and political tolerance
which are measured through a specific series of survey questions, best if
done through the Internet.

3.3.1 Propaganda Technology

You need 24/7 effective propaganda to get non-stop public support of your
policy — your war for public support doesn’t stop the day you enter the
White House — it may stop the day you leave the White House. If your polls
go below 40%, the United States effectively has no President.

Use the following propaganda tools:

- general (abstract) information on big problem
- information dosage (the less people know — the easier you convince them)
- misinformation (full or partial) presented as news, sensations, rumors
- disorientation - one bit of information contradicts another one
- provocation - information “pushes” people (before you start war)
- information over-dosage - too much information (and people lose interest)
- exaggeration of enemy’s negative sides and promotion of scary data
- distraction of nation’s attention from news that is bad (for you) by
publishing sensations and (political) scandals
- stereotype manipulation (“nuclear threat,” “international terror,”
- “shuffle” - all news and facts match President’s political course
- “cocktail” - mix of true and false information
-“facts transportation” from abroad (you buy a foreign reporter and
he’s publishing positive information on your politics; then you spread the
information through American media)

Remember the principles of mass psychology: people don’t believe the
government - they believe the market and the stock exchange; people need
statements, not analysis.

3.3.2 Mind Control

Every day in 2004 we watched the Homeland Security Department “terror
alert colors” and very often the threat was “high” or “very high.”
With all my 30 years espionage experience I couldn’t understand why they
were telling the nation about the threat and producing the multicolor picture
on TV. Why? What can ordinary Americans do about that? What happened next
made the situation absolutely clear for me and posed one more question for
the nation: right after President Bush was re-elected the colors disappeared
- why? Again, what happened? Is there no more “terror threat” to America?
There is. But there’s mind control, too.
Mind control, which I call mind manipulation or MM, is used to program the
“right political behavior” of the nation or “indifferent behavior,”
if necessary, without people’s knowing or understanding the procedure. We
are talking here about total illegal social control.

3.3.3 Principles of Mind Manipulation

1) It’s not enough if every single citizen, and the nation as a whole,
thinks and behaves your way - it’s much better if they want to behave your
way and feel comfortable, and are absolutely sure it’s their own choice
and, finally, they become your active supporters.
2) If you want to control the nation and program peoples’ thoughts, you
have to control knowledge (information, culture and communication).
3) The political imagination (belief) of the nation has to move in the right
direction and has to be accepted as the most comfortable and most acceptable
way of political activity: nobody is thinking, nobody is criticizing the
President, nobody is making comparisons and drawing conclusions. Everybody
believes the American President and hates his enemies.
4) Don’t waste time fighting foreign ideology, take care of ordinary
5) There is no difference between commercial and political advertising, and

3.3.4 Technology of Mind Manipulation

1) Create a steadfast American collective will-power: “We want to live
forever in the America we live in now” - through the media.
2) Don’t ask people to change their views and beliefs - they have only to
change the object of their aggression - “Now we understand who is to be
blamed for the problems! (the previous President, political opponents).
“Now we understand where the problem lies!”(economic cycles, etc.).
3) Get people accustomed to accept facts but believe only in the “right”
commentaries - any common sense has to be “switched off.” This way you
create “mass artificial schizophrenia” — people lose the ability (and
desire) to connect statements and facts (notions) and just believe.
Besides, by extreme exaggeration of the enemy’s negative qualities you can
install step by step the national schizophrenic fear and people have to
accept you, the US President, as a savior. Plus, no matter what, repeat your
major statements until people start accepting them without thinking.
4) Divide the nation into “good Americans”(patriots) and “bad
Americans”(the “minority).
Then make it clear that it’s much better and more comfortable to be
“good” than “bad.” “We aren’t watching good Americans who support
the President. The surveillance is for bad Americans and we make their lives
and careers uncomfortable. We have to do that because enemies of America may
be using them.” This method is called artificial social selection and its
ultimate goal is a total regulation and standardization of the nation.
5) For successful MM, use the combined efforts of popular American writers,
TV and radio anchors, talented publicists and columnists, business and show
business celebrities, politicians. Thus, step by step you create the
“industry of correct political behavior and correct American thinking.”
6) Use a combination: statement + image. It reduces the effort needed to
understand your message and makes people comfortable with you.
7) Shift all popular TV shows to prime time - Americans don’t have to think
about politics after they come home.
8) Keep terrorists in Guantanamo Bay forever - Americans have to see the
threat every day .

3.4 Emergency Powers of the President (Setting Aside Democracy)

I. Powers over individuals.
Confine any individuals seen to be threats to national security.
Restrict travel of Americans to other nations or travel of some foreigners to
the USA.
Restrict movement of citizens within the United States.
Require persons, because of their backgrounds, associations with certain
groups, or ownership of particular articles (such as weapons), to register
with government officials.
Restrict certain persons from working in industries names as critical to
national security.
Remove federal employees regarded as threats to national security.
Declare martial law.
Assign armed forces to conflicts in foreign nations.
II. Powers over property.
Order stockpiling of strategic materials (such as uranium).
Impose restrictions on exports (such as hi-tech products).
Allocate materials in ways necessary to aid national defense.
Require industries to give priority to government contracts and seize
industries failing to comply with such orders.
Fix wages and prices.
III. Powers over communication.
Withhold information from Congress and the public deemed potentially
sensitive to national security.
Monitor and censor communications between United States and other nations.
Require foreign representatives to register with US government.
The President also has the authority to declare states of emergency in areas
of the country hit by hurricanes, floods, earthquakes or other natural
disasters, and to use this to enhance his power or public image.

Chapter 4. The US Congress Management

“To my mind Judas Iscariot was nothing but a low, mean, premature
“It could probably be shown by facts and figures that there is no
distinctly native American class except Congress.” — Mark Twain
“If everybody here connected with politics had to leave town because of
chasing women and drinking, you’d have no government.” — Senator Barry
One night President Cleveland was awakened by his wife: ”Wake up! There are
burglars in the house!” “No, my dear,” said Cleveland sleepily, ”in
the Senate maybe, not in the House.”
“Israel controls the US Senate. The Senate is subservient, much too much;
we should be more concerned about US interests rather than doing the bidding
of Israel. The great majority of the Senate of the US — somewhere around
80% — is completely in support of Israel; anything Israel wants, Israel
gets. This has been demonstrated again, and this has made [foreign policy]
difficult for our government.” — Senator W. Fulbright, April 15, 1973).

The White House, not Congress, represents the nation. You are the leader
and you set the legislative agenda. They can’t start business until you
give them State of the Union Address and a budget message. That’s your
program - and theirs. Start your first term with a big legislative victory.
The US Constitution says nothing on how you manage the Congress so feel free
to use the advice in these pages.

4.1 How a Bill Becomes a Law

A Senator or Representative introduces a bill in Congress by sending it to
the clerk of the House or the Senate, who assigns it a number and title. This
procedure is termed the first reading. The clerk then returns the bill to
appropriate committee of the Senate or the House. If the Committee opposes
the bill, it will table or “kill” it. Otherwise, the Committee holds
hearings to listen to opinions and facts offered by members and other
interested people. The Committee then debates the bill and possibly offers
amendments. A vote is taken, and if favorable, the bill is sent back to the
clerk of the House or Senate. The clerk reads the bill to the house — the
second reading. Members may then debate the bill and suggest amendments.
After debate and possibly amendment, the bill is given a third reading,
simply of the title and put to a voice or roll-call vote. If passed, the bill
goes to the other house, where it may be defeated or passed, with or without
amendments, If defeated, the bill “dies.” If passed with amendments, a
conference committee made up of members of both houses works out the
differences and arrives at a compromise. After passage of the final version
by both houses, the bill is sent to the President. If the President signs it,
the bill becomes a law. The President may, however, veto the bill, refuse to
sign it and send it back to the house where it originated. The President’s
objections are then read and debated, and a roll-call vote is taken. If the
bill receives less than a two-thirds majority, it is defeated. If it receives
at least two-thirds, it is sent to the other house. If that house also passes
it by at least a two-thirds majority, the veto is overridden, and the bill
becomes a law.
If the President neither signs nor vetoes the bill within 10 days — not
including Sundays — it automatically becomes a law even without the
President’s signature. However, if Congress has adjourned within those 10
days, the bill is automatically “killed”; this indirect rejection is
termed a pocket veto.

4.2 Functions of Congress

If you want to rule America, you have to rule the US Senate. Remember, you
are one person concentrated on your program. Congress is a big and
disorganized, chaotic institution — not a single word pronounced by these
people ever makes history. Respect Congress anyway — it creates the
illusion that the American people influence big politics through their
The functions of Congress are supposed to be:
- lawmaking for all Americans
- serve constituents as brokers between them and federal government
- representation of diverse interests — which is often impossible, because
members can’t be delegates for everyone
- oversight of the bureaucracy to follow up the laws it has enacted to ensure
that they are being enforced and administered in the way Congress intended
- by holding committee hearings and investigations, changing the size of an
agency budget and cross-examining high-level presidential nominees to head
major agencies (a formality, nothing serious)
- the public education function
- resolving conflicts in American society (see “Interest groups” game).

Differences between the House and the Senate:

435 members 100
Members chosen from local districts Members chosen
from entire state
Two-year term Six-year
Originally elected by voters Originally
(until 1913) elected by state legislatures
May impeach (indict) federal officials May convict
federal officials
Debate limited Debate
Floor action controlled Unanimous
consent rulers
Less prestige and less individual notice More prestige
and media attention
Originates bills for raising revenues Power to
advise the President on, and consent to, presidential appointments and
Local or narrow leadership National
National leadership

The major difference between the House and the Senate is that the House’s
rules and procedures are strict, while Senate rules are more broad and open
to interpretation.
There’s one thing they have in common — inertia.
Note: Members of the Senate serve for six years, with only one-third of the
body up for reelection every second year. Thus, every other Senate term is
not affected directly by a Presidential election and this gives Senators
greater freedom to oppose presidential initiatives without as much concern
about short-term constituent pressures. The Senators’ independence can be a
problem for the president even if they are of the same party.

The Congress has five main checks over the President’s power:
1. to override a veto
2. to approve your appointees to federal jobs
3. to approve treaties
4. impeachment
5. to stop funding executive department programs

Seniority (the length of continuous service on the record of a member of
Congress or Senate) is the single most important factor in determining:
- who becomes Speaker of the House or President pro tempore of the Senate
- who is influential in floor debates
- who has an easier time getting his legislative measures adopted on the
floor of Congress

Never mind about Representatives (especially when it comes to foreign affairs
and national security) — they understand very little and can do practically
nothing due to their two-year term. Your problem is the Senate (though you
have to be involved in Congressional elections every two years, too.) Yes,
the Senate is a problem because it shares executive powers with the President
(confirmation of appointments and approval of treaty ratification). And if it
comes to impeachment, the final decision is the Senate’s.
The House originates the most important thing in the United States — tax
legislation, but the Senate can amend any bill and the trick is — they do
this toward the end of the session. And the worst problem on Capitol Hill is
balancing the budget.
Committees of the Senate: Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry,
Appropriations, Armed Services, Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs, Budget,
Commerce, Science, and transportation, Energy and Natural Resources,
Environment and Public Works, Finance, Foreign Relations, Government Affairs,
Health, Education,Labor, and Pensions, Judiciary, Rules and Administration,
Small Business, Veterans Affairs.
Committees of the House: Agriculture, Appropriations, Armed Services,
Budget, Education and the Workforce, Energy and Commerce, Financial Services,
Government Reform, House Administration, International Relations, Judiciary,
Resources, Rules, Science, Small Business, Standarts of Official Conduct,
Transportation and Infrastructure, Veterans Affairs, Ways and Means.

4.3 What you don't know about them

1. A Congressional session is nothing else but a waste of federal time and
money — you don’t need debates because Congressional staffers can do all
the technical work and they can negotiate between themselves and balance
positions. Senators and Congressmen don’t even have to come to Washington
— they can vote from their local offices. So these people can spend their
time helping thousands of constituents, most of whom never saw their Senator
2. The President is dependent on Congressional cooperation to carry out the
executive responsibilities of the Office because Congress has to authorize
government programs, establish administrative agencies to implement the
problems and funds to finance them.
3. It’s important if President belongs to the party with a majority in the
House and Senate. But if your party loses the majority in Congress, you have
to work out new political strategy yourself. And you know what? Go to the
polls right away and ask voters why they supported the other party. What
4. President’s prestige (popular support or political capital) affects
Congressional response to his politics.
5. Influence in Congress is courted only for long periods of service; a
Senator with 30 years in office (like Edward Kennedy) has considerably more
power than a Senator in his first or second term.This causes the electorate
to increasingly favor incumbents, as dislodging one’s Congressman or
Senator after 30 years, even if the candidate or his party have become
unpopular, can be viewd as hurting one’s district financially. It is often
thought that a freshman would be less able to bring home federal money for
his state or district.
6. For most Senators, the Senate is a platform for Presidential election
campaign. Senators who openly express presidential ambitions are better able
to gain media exposure and to establish careers as spokespersons for large
national constituencies.
7. The first act of a newly elected Representative is to maneuver for
election to the Senate. Why? First, they enjoy their position, power and
money for six years non-stop. Second, there are only a hundred Senators and
the publicity is much, much greater. But…Representatives have a much better
chance to be re-elected.
8. Congress rejects two thirds of President’s proposals.
9. Senators are always looking for a BBD (bigger, better deal) and often
shift from one committee to another (a good choice is those dealing with
taxes, budget, energy, commerce).
10. Bills to benefit big business move smoothly. (Congress doesn’t like the
poor — they don’t contribute; sorry). To gain majority support for big
business legislation members have a special trick — log rolling, when
factions combine efforts.
11. Senators don’t depend on the people — they depend on the media.
12. If a certain Senator is blocking the President’s proposal, appointment
or plan, that means he wants to get the President’s attention.
13. When Senators want to bury issues without resolving them, they create
14. The Senate is a relatively small structure and personal relations between
Senators are extremely important.
15. Senators have no incentive to study the details of most pieces of
legislation and their decision is simplified by quickly checking how key
colleagues have voted or intend to vote.
16.To have power a Senator has to object: much of the Senate work is done by
unanimous consent and if you object you’ll be approached for sure by some
influential people including other Senators, Secretaries, President’s aides
or the President himself. They’ll try to press, blackmail or buy you —
and that means you’ve got a piece of the power pie.
17. Senators avoid responsibility and their legitimate functions and roles,
especially in economic policy.
18. Congress doesn’t like it when any government agency grows, but these
people love the military because military contracts are very lucrative for
Congressional districts.
19. Senior Senators teach “newcomers” to vote against any reform which is
a threat to their stability.
20. A Senator has real influence on legislation only if he has professional
staff in charge of the projects.
21. Senators are afraid to vote against a defense budget increase because
then they may be accused of a lack of patriotism (the Pentagon gives jobs in
their states too).
22. Republicans and Democrats are not really enemies, here, though both sides
are always looking for a “traitor” or “insider” in the other camp.
23. You must have “insiders” in the Senate yourself, because the other
party could prepare secretly and then launch officially some investigation
against you or the members of your Administration.
24. A legislator does exactly what his voters want him to do — stealing
federal money from other states and districts, because for him the most
important thing is numbers — polls in his state showing how many people
approve his activity. His donors watch these numbers too and estimate their
investment and the necessity to support re-election.
25. Every member of Congress has a so-called “split personality” — a
“Hill style” while working on Capitol Hill and a “home style” while
back in the state or district with the voters.
26. A Senator makes a decision only after thinking about what it means in
terms of the re-election money that will come to him or to his opponents. His
voting decisions depend on his party membership, constituency pressures,
state and regional loyalty ideology, interest groups’ influence. His
stubbornness comes from the fact that he doesn’t want to be seen by his
constituents as a “rubber stamp” for President’s decisions, especially
when the bill in question benefits a Senator’s state. (And the hidden
problem is — you want to move fast, especially during the first year while
your personal popularity is high — but for the Congress speed is not
27. Sooner or later every member of Congress starts playing the “pork
barrel” game. It’s nothing else but a diversion of federal funds to
projects and places not out of national need but to enhance a member’s
chances of re-election in his district (military projects, federal buildings,
highways construction projects). So be ready for a “Christmas gift” when
these fellows add pork barrel amendments to appropriations bills you are
about to sign. They often wait until late in each session to pass critical
spending bills, which narrows your range of possible responses because a veto
may not be feasible if Congress has adjourned and the funds needed to run the
federal government are contained in the legislation.
28. In Congress a small percentage of bills (about 500 out of 10,000)
actually become law because many bills are introduced merely to get favorable
press. The strategy is especially effective if the legislation is “tied”
to the headlines of the day (mass murders, natural disasters, ethnic riots
29. In the Senate it’s easier for a minority to block the bill than for a
majority to pass it: a 60-vote majority is needed to force a final vote on
the bill, while only 41 votes are needed to continue debate and delay a vote.
30. The minority can hold the majority responsible as the party in power for
whatever legislation does or does not emerge from the Senate. But both
parties prefer to be the party in power in the Senate - all Senate
legislation begins in the committees, whose membership and chairmanship are
controlled by the party in power. Besides, each chairman has power in terms
of controlling the committee budgets and deciding which hearings will be held
and which legislation he will allow to be released to the Senate floor for a
vote. He can also “lock up the bill” in committee until it dies. Perfect!

4. 4 A Few Congressional Run-ins with the Law

Upon certification by the Senator’s/representative’s home state, a new
Senator/Рepresentative takes an oath of office:
“I,(name) do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the
Constitution of the United States against all enemies,foreign and
domestic;that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same;that I take
this obligation freely,without any mental reservation or purpose of
evasion;and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the
office on which I am about to enter:So help me God”.

1904 Senator Joseph Burton of Kansas is convicted of bribery.
1924 Representative John Langley of Kentucky is convicted of violating the
National Prohibition Act.
1931 Representative Harry Rowbottom of Indiana is convicted of accepting
1934 Representative George Foulkes of Michigan is convicted of conspiracy
to assess postmasters for political contributions.
1946 Representative James Curley of Massachusetts is convicted of mail
fraud and conspiracy.
1947 Representative Andrew May of Kentucky is convicted of conspiring to
defraud the government and accepting bribes.
1948 Representative J. Parnell Thomas of New Jersey is convicted of
conspiring to defraud the government, payroll padding and receiving kickbacks
from salaries.
1954 Senate censures Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin for having acted
“contrary to senatorial ethics” and for bringing the Senate “into
dishonesty and disrepute.”
1956 Representative Thomas Lane of Massachusetts is convicted of federal
income tax evasion.
1969 Representative Hugh Addonizio of New Jersey is convicted of
extortion, conspiracy and income tax evasion. In a separate incident, on
Chappaquiddick Island in Massachusetts on July 18, a car driven by Senator Ed
Kennedy plunges off Dike Bridge into the water. While the Senator manages to
extricate himself from the vehicle, his young secretary Mary Jo Kopechne, a
passenger, is trapped and dies in the car.
1970 Representative John Dowdy of Texas is convicted of conspiracy,
perjury and bribery.
1972 Representative Cornelius Gallagher of New Jersey pleads guilty to
tax evasion.
1973 Representative Frank Brasco of New York is convicted of conspiracy
to receive bribes. Representative Bertram Podell of New York pleads guilty to
conspiracy, bribery and perjury.
1975 Representative Andrew Hinshaw of California is convicted of bribery
and embezzlement.
1976 Elizabeth Ray avers that Representative Wayne Hays of Ohio put her
on the payroll solely because she was his mistress. The Washington Post
reveals a Justice Department investigation into influence buying by Tongsun
Park, a South Korean businessman. Representative James Hastings of New York
is convicted of mail fraud.
1977 Representative Richard Tonry of Louisiana is convicted of receiving
illegal campaign contributions and obstruction of justice.
1978 Representative Charles Diggs of Michigan is convicted of mail fraud
and perjury.
1980 Representative Michael Myers of Pennsylvania is convicted of bribery
and conspiracy as part of the FBI’s ABSCAM investigation. Senator Harrison
Williams of New Jersey is convicted of bribery and conspiracy in ABSCAM.
Representative Raymond Lederer of Pennsylvania is convicted of conspiracy and
bribery in ABSCAM. Representative John Jenrette Jr. of South Carolina is
convicted of bribery and conspiracy in ABSCAM Representative Frank Thompson
of New Jersey is convicted of bribery in ABSCAM. Representative John Murphy
of New York is convicted of bribery in ABSCAM. Representative Richard Kelly
of Florida is convicted of bribery in ABSCAM. (ABSCAM was an FBI sting
operation in which a mysterious Arab sheik Abdul bribed top US officials and
inveigled them into illegal investment schemes.)
1983 Representative George Hansen of Idaho is convicted of filing false
financial disclosure statements.
1987 Representative Barney Frank of Massachusetts, who had disclosed that
he was a homosexual, was accused of hiring a former sex partner as a personal
1988 Representative Mario Biaggi of New York is convicted of obstructing
justice, tax evasion, conspiracy, extortion and accepting bribes.
Representative Pat Swindall of Georgia is convicted of perjury. 1989
Representative Donald Lukens of Ohio is convicted of contributing to the
delinquency of a minor. Representative Jim Bates of California accused of
sexually harassing women on his staff.
1990 Senator David Durenberg of Minnesota is charged with receiving
illegal reimbursements for housing expenses and for backdating his purchase
of a share in a condominium. The senate formally denounces him in July 1990
and orders him to make restitution for his financial misconduct. The
“Keating Five”: As the trial of Arizona financier Charles Keating
proceeds, it becomes known that five US Senators (Alan Cranston of
California, Dennis DeConcini of Arizona, Donald Riegle of Michigan, John
Glenn of Ohio and John McCain of Arizona) used their influence to limit the
regulation of Keating’s savings bank. (By 1987 McCain received about
$112,000 in political contributions.) The Senate Ethics Committee issues a
report reprimanding Senator Cranston for accepting more than $850,000 in
contributions to voter-registration groups that he sponsored in return for
intervening on Keating’s behalf with bank regulators. The other four
Senators are mildly reprimanded for their conduct.
1991 Representative Nick Mavroules of Massachusetts pleads guilty to
bribery and tax evasion.
1993 Representative Larry Smith of Florida is convicted of income tax
evasion and campaign-reporting violations. Representative Albert Bustamante
of Texas is convicted of racketeering and accepting an illegal gratuity.
1994 Representative Carrol Hubbard of Kentucky pleads guilty to filing a
false financial-disclosure statement.
1995 Representative Mel Reynolds of Illinois is convicted of having sex
with a minor and obstructing justice.
2006 Representative Mark Foley of Florida resigns because of sex letters
he e-mailed to a 16-year-old boy.

4.5 How to Control Congres

The President can propose legislation, but Congress is not required to pass
any of the administration’s bills. But you know already that Senators and
Representatives need re-election more than anything else. So you can go with
indirect influence through appeals to the public; this is a confrontation and
direct challenge to Congressional authority. You can also enlist the support
of interest groups or direct influence through favors and personal
involvement in the legislative process. (Get public support for a proposal
before it’s discussed with the Congress.) And don’t hesitate to start a
national debate — you have enough media attention for that.
You also have an independent tool, presidential power in the form of an
executive order. You can give favors directly to members of Congress or to
influential people in their constituency, or the favor may be of benefit to
the constituency itself:
- appointments with the President and other high-ranking officials
- federal grants to recipients in the constituency, government contracts with
local companies, the deposit of federal funds in banks, grants to local
government and educational institutions
- support of projects (military installations, research and administrative
facilities, public works such as buildings, dams and navigational
improvements to rivers and harbors, etc.)
- recommendations for the US district court judges, attorneys, marshals, etc.
- campaign assistance (cash contributions from the party’s national
committee invitations to bill-signing ceremonies, White House parties or to
accompany President on trips
- bargaining and arm-twisting (pressure and threats to lose the projects).


1. The Congressional Relations Office. Used for:
- intense lobbying to form Congressional coalitions if the opposition
controls one or both houses
- intelligence gathering (of policy preferences — centralized headcounts
reveal the voting intentions on a particular bill and constituency concerns
of individual members)
- representation
- creating “inner coalitions”
- coordination of executive branch legislative activity (monitoring and
tracking bills, controlling departments’ staff appointments, collaborating
with departments’ liaison offices)
Attention! Senators and Congressmen have to trust your people, who must keep
their mouths shut, otherwise there will be no business. Anyway, watch these
people — a Senator can call one of your assistants and if they hear
“no,” he will try to reach somebody else until he gets “Yes, the
President will see you.” Don’t let this happen — if it’s “no,” it
has to be everybody’s “no.” There has to be no difference between
personal views of your adviser and your official views.
2. Congressional Relations personnel of various executive Departments are a
conduit. Talk to the Secretaries and explain to them that they have to give
the Director of Congressional Relations their best people.
3. The White House interest groups liaison staff (office of public liaison)
4. Veto. Threatened with a veto, Senators often seek compromise.
Congress has its ways to undermine your vetoes or threats of vetoes. Because
you can’t veto parts of a bill, they load up major legislation with
amendments on a completely different subject (“riders”) that they know
the President must accept. (Presidents who vetoed the most bills: Franklin
Roosevelt - 635, Harry Truman - 250, Dwight Eisenhower - 181, Ronald Reagan
- 78, Gerald Ford - 66).
5. Executive agreement. It permits the President to enter into open or secret
agreements with a foreign government without any advice or consent of the
Senate. There are two categories of executive agreements:
а) presidential agreements made solely on the basis of the constitutional
authority of the President and under his sole power to faithfully execute the
laws (or under his diplomatic or Commander-in-Chief powers). President needs
to report secret agreement to the Foreign Relations Committees of the two
houses no later than 60 days after such agreement has entered into force.
Congress has no authority to disapprove it.
b) congressional-executive agreements, which cover all international
agreements entered into under the combined authority of the President and

Finally, this is what you can do with a bill:
- sign the bill (the bill becomes a law)
- do nothing (the bill becomes a law in ten days)
- veto the bill (the bill does not become a law)
- pocket veto the bill (hold the bill until Congress is no longer in session,
and the bill does not become a law)

4.6 The “Iron Triangle,” a Sub-Government Mafia

The “Iron Triangle,” an anti-presidential control system, is a strong
alliance among three groups — federal agencies, interest groups and
Congressional committees and subcommittees, where each member has a mutually
beneficial relationship with the other two and all members work together to
pursue common goals. (This strong connection between federal agencies and the
Congress members is especially dangerous for the President in a political
sense — it’s too hard to influence them). Agency careerists, interest
groups lobbyists and members of Congress and their staffers with close
personal mafia-like relationships discuss policy issues (proposed
legislation, budget, personal concerns) and then agree on preferred outcomes
on the basis of the mafia principle of exchanging favors. Bureaucrats want
unlimited funding and legislation granting them maximum authority and
discretion. In return, members of Congress want preferential treatment for
their constituencies, technical assistance for their staff, and often help in
drafting legislation. Interest groups’ lobbyists want members of Congress
to pass and fund programs that benefit groups and to help group members be
appointed to and confirmed for key government jobs. In return, Congress wants
financial and political help for their campaigns. Interest groups want a
strong say in federal agencies’ decisions, including the writing of
regulations, ideally through a formal advisory system that would give the
interest group either formal or informal veto power over such decisions. In
return, federal agencies want the political support of interest groups,
including positive congressional testimony and lobbying for additional funds
for the agency.

Interest Groups

There are 80,000 lobbyists in Washington, DC . The National Rifle Association
has a full-time Washington, DC staff of 300 lobbyists.

Congress can’t live without interest groups, interest groups can’t live
without Congress. They are glued together and you must know the hidden
mechanism of their relations if you want to manage the US Congress properly.
An interest group is any organized group whose members share common
objectives. These groups actively attempt to influence government policy
makers, mostly Senators and Representatives, through direct and indirect
strategies, including the marshalling of public opinion, lobbying and
Lobbyists, like professional spies, are always looking for intelligence
information on everybody in Washington, DC from personal contacts, government
memos, press releases, public information programs, technical bulletins and
regulations. For them the most important thing is to obtain information
before it’s officially released — it allows their customers, i.e.
corporations, to develop PR campaigns to offset possible adverse reaction to
their goals. Let’s have a closer look at their strategies.

I. Direct strategies
1. Lobbying
The main activity of lobbying is private meetings, in which lobbyists make
known to Congressmen the lobbyist’s client interests, and possibly offer
inducements for cooperating. Lobbyists furnish needed information Congressmen
could not hope to obtain on their own. It’s to the lobbyist’s advantage
to provide accurate information so that the policy maker will rely on him in
the future.
Lobbying includes: testifying before congressional committees for or against
proposed legislation; testifying before executive rule-making agencies, such
as the Federal Trade Commission, for or against proposed rules; assisting
legislators or bureaucrats in drafting legislation of prospective regulations
(lobbyists often can furnish legal advice on the specific details of
legislation); inviting legislators to social occasions such as cocktail
parties or boating expeditions; providing political information to
legislators (lobbyists often have better information than the party
leadership about how other legislators are going to vote). In this case, the
political information they furnish may be a key to legislative success).
2. The “Ratings” Game
The over-all behavior of legislators can be influenced through their rating
systems. Each year the interest group selects those votes on legislation that
it feels are most important to the organization’s goals. Legislators are
given a score based on the percentage of times that he or she voted with the
interest group (from 0 to 100%)
3. Campaign assistance
A strong side of interest groups is that they are able to provide workers for
political campaigns, including precinct workers to get out the vote,
volunteers to put up posters and pass out literature. In states where
membership in certain interest groups is large, candidates look for the
groups’ endorsement in the campaign.
Endorsements are important because an interest groups usually publicizes its
choices in its membership publication and because the candidate can use the
endorsement in his campaign literature. Making no endorsement can be
perceived as disapproval of the candidate.
II. Indirect Strategies
By working through third parties — which may be constituents, the general
public or other groups, the interest groups can try to influence government
policy. Indirect techniques mask the interest group’s own activities and
make the effort appear to be spontaneous. Furthermore, legislators are
usually more impressed by contacts from the constituents than from an
interest group’s lobbyist.
1.Generating public pressure
Interest groups try to produce a “groundswell” of public pressure to
influence the government. Such efforts may include advertisements in national
magazines and newspapers, mass mailings, television publicity and
demonstrations. They may commission polls to find out what the public
sentiments are and then publicize the results. The goal of this activity is
to convince policy makers that public opinion wholly supports the group’s
position. Some corporations and interest groups use such a method as climate
control — it calls for public relations efforts that are aimed at improving
the public image of the industry or group and not necessarily related to any
specific political issue. Contributions by corporations and groups in support
of public TV and commercials extolling the virtues of corporate research are
examples of climate control. By building a reservoir of favorable public
opinion, groups believe it less likely that their legislative goals will be
met with opposition by the public.
2. Constituents as lobbyists
A very effective method is to use constituents to lobby for the group’s
goals. In the “shotgun” approach, the interest group tries to mobilize
large numbers of constituents to write or phone Congressmen or the President.
This method is only effective on Capitol Hill when there is an extraordinary
number of responses, because legislators know that the voters did not
initiate the communication on their own. A more influential variation of this
technique uses only important constituents (mostly local big business).
3. Building alliances
Interest group forms alliance with other group concerned about the same
legislation. The advantages of an alliance are that it looks as if larger
public interests are at stake, and it hides the specific interests of the
individual groups involved. It’s also a device for keeping like-minded
groups from duplicating one another’s lobbying efforts.

One of the strongest iron triangles is a so-called “military-industrial
complex” — its members include the Department of Defense, weapons
contractors and related firms and congressional armed services committees.
Some popular interest groups include: American Bar Association, American Farm
Bureau Federation, American Welfare Association, Fund for Constitutional
Government, National Association of Community Action Agencies, National Rifle
Association, National Organization of Women.

Chapter 5. Foreign Policy

A king has to do three jobs: persuade the rich to help the poor; persuade the
best woman to marry him; and persuade other kings to fight each other instead
of fighting him. OK.
Foreign policy is a set of political goals that seeks to outline how USA
will interact with other countries;it’s designed to help protect our
national interests, national security, ideological goals, and economic
growth. Successful foreign policy needs electoral and financial support. This
comes naturally when you demonstrate the permanent presence of external
threats like the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) or
international terrorism, to keep the nation alert and in line. Foreign policy
serves to help you with domestic problems which often “push” you to make
hard international decisions. It’s not about democracy in Iraq — it’s
about your reelection.

Presidential Foreign Policy Doctrines
Monroe Doctrine: European powers must keep their hands off the Western
Theodore Roosevelt Doctrine: The United States will police chronic wrongdoing
or impotence.
Truman Doctrine: To support free people resisting subjugation from internal
or outside groups.
Eisenhower Doctrine: To intervene in the Middle East against Communist
Nixon Doctrine: To help allies while fostering their reduced reliance on
Secretary of State William P.Rogers signs the Peace Agreement ending the
Vietnam War. 1973.
Carter Doctrine: To keep the Persian Gulf free of foreign control.
Reagan Doctrine: To support anti-Communist insurgencies anywhere.

5.1 Foreign policy decision making involves:

- assessment of the international and domestic political environment
- goal setting. We have multiple foreign policy goals, and we must determine
which goal is effected by the international and domestic political
environment at any given time. In addition, foreign policy goals may
conflict, which will require you to priortise.
- determination of policy options
- decision making action
- implementation of chosen policy option

You have to decide if you want to design and execute foreign policy all by
yourself, even not telling Secretary of State about your confidential talks,
negotiations or special operations. There’s one more strong point — you
also have considerable advantages over Congress in foreign policy making —
you know why?

First, as head of foreign policy bureaucracy, the diplomatic corps, the
intelligence agencies and the military, you control information that is vital
to the foreign policy making.
Second, you, unlike Congress, can work with speed and secrecy and this is
essential if you have to handle international crisis which threatens national
Third, since it is your responsibility to communicate with foreign
governments through treaty negotiations and diplomatic channels, you can most
easily formulate policy that is consistent with negotiating positions and
official statements.
Fourth, as the executor of foreign policy, Commander in Chief of the armed
forces and appointer of diplomatic personnel, you are in the best position to
judge the capacity of the government to carry out a given foreign policy
initiative. Fifth, you are elected by a national constituency and you can
focus on international problems that affect the entire nation.
Finally, get highly professional staff, because international relations
involve a diverse range of issues, from globalization to global warming,
nuclear proliferation, nationalism, terrorism, organized crime, human
security, and human rights.

"Golden" rules

1. International treaties have to be negotiated by diplomats prior to
endorsement by presidents.
2. The information gathered by spies plays an increasingly role in diplomacy
(arms-control treaties would be impossible without the power of
reconnaissance satellites and agents to monitor compliance).
3. If you start war, it doesn’t mean you failed diplomacy , it means
military decision is much more profitable.
4. Make it clear to foreign leaders right away whether you are or you are not
going to follow the previous President’s foreign policy (after
consultations with big business). If you are not going to follow it, design a
doctrine of your own (it’s a strategy that is the recognized approach or
policy of the US government.
5. National security is your top priority and is the “king’s job”
because actually you have no domestic political obstacles to your foreign
policy (if it’s a question of war), so you are a chief decision maker
there. (The CIA Director has to be excluded from this process — you don’t
need him. Besides, the CIA even today, no matter how hard I tried to educate
the Agency, remains the worst of the worst and is not to be reformed — it
has to be abolished. We have to transfer political intelligence functions to
Pentagon. National security is designed to protect the United States and the
vital interests (investments) of big business and to promote American values
in a world of rivals, and the CIA, through all 60 years of its history, has
proved to be absolutely unsuitable for the job).
6. Any country has to be involved in the sphere of our strategic interests if
it has a strategic geographic position, significant sources of raw materials,
a well-developed transportation system, or could be used as a military base.
The strategic policy of any country rotates around the USA and if not —
that means a certain President is waiting for greater incentives to come on
board. Against target countries, don’t hesitate to use the strategies of
pre-emptive war, post-war (post-crisis) reconstruction, and nation building
(which means erasing national identity and supplanting it by liberal values).
With China’s growth and Russia’s rebirth, the Cold War is back with a
vengeance, so we are back to secret deals based on spheres of influence —
but that’s a temporary strategy.
7. You can’t always do what you want without help - you are dependent on
other world leaders, Congressional positions and international public
opinion. Ask the Senate to help you sometimes - believe me, they’ll be
happy and proud to do so.
8. Create super-profitable conditions for big business by political
penetration worldwide. Big money men start investing abroad when they find a
safe environment — law and order. The more they invest the more political
power they get (international corporationsis the most important element of
international system ; the other two are governments and non-governmental
9. Use big investors to ruin other national economies and governments by
withdrawing finances when the economic situation is worsening. As soon as the
country opens its financial markets, it increases its dependence on global
economic processes that it cannot control; and a financial crisis can easily
be staged. Conversely, other countries’ access to the US markets is a
powerful economic and political tool.
10. Make the US markets the most attractive for investors by provoking
unstable situations in other countries and regions.
11. Send troops or work through military intelligence (not the CIA) to
wherever you perceive a threat to the US investments.
12. Use pressure everywhere — strategic nuclear missiles are still the most
powerful blackmail tool. Remember, if you are dealing with Russia or China,
they will look not only for agreement, but for advantages.
13. Use “personal diplomacy” — phone calls to foreign leaders (every
planned phone call has to go through the National Security Adviser and be
well prepared, like a serious negotiation). Most important are phone calls to
our allies — NATO members. Don’t forget to wish happy birthday to the
leaders in person!
14. Use “informal diplomacy” – recruit politicians in other nations who
might be able to give informal access to a country’s leadership. In some
situations, such as betweeb USA and China diplomacy is done through
semi-formal channels using interlocutors such as academic members or
thinktanks. This occurs in situations when presidents wish to express
intentions or to suggest methods of resolving a diplomatic situation, but do
not wish to express a formal position.
15. Don’t hesitate to use summits as a tool, because:
-if you meet a foreign leader in person, you can reduce tensions and clarify
national interests.
-personal relationship may lead to improved relations between nations.
-summits allow you to focus national attention on specific issues.
-presidents engaging in personal diplomacy are much more capable than career
diplomatic bureaucrats of understanding the domestic policy consequences of
diplomatic actions.
-summit negotiations can yield quick results, since discussions are between
leaders with the power of decision rather than between representatives who
must receive instructions, make reports and rely new proposals.
-diplomatic impasses may be overcome at summits by shifts in policy that only
top leaders are empowered to make.
-if presidents desire an international forum for their diplomatic policies, a
summit meeting can provide one.
-successful summits can enhance the image of the President and the United
16. If you’re ready to fight for national interests, forget about human
rights — you can always blame infractions on the other side.
17. Isolation is the greatest enemy to information.
18. There’s no sense in applying sanctions if big business isn’t
19. Economic and hence, political progress for any country affects the USA
through economic competition that threatens the market and jobs.
20. Any initiative is risky if it’s about unstable region, but you lose
popularity fast if you are perceived as indecisive or weak in foreign policy.
21. Any trip abroad has to convey a strong message.
22. Direct military intrusion indicates weakness in your foreign policy. If
it’s inescapable, involve as many allies as you can.
23. Don’t touch our military bases abroad!
24. Big debts open markets. No matter what, open national markets world-wide
for American big business and remember — the markets, not Presidents, rule
the world.
25. Tie your allies to international economic projects and make them pay most
of the expenses.
26. Never talk about money in public — talk about democracy, human rights,
liberal values and disarmament — people like it.
27. Move forward — transform Americans’ national and patriotic feelings
into nationalistic ones (follow the French model) to get total support of
your policy (see “Mind Control”).
28. Don’t pay too much attention to the CIA — all they have to do is to
support you with appropriate information to justify your strategic political
decisions - and nothing else.
29. Ignore the UN — Secretary General has no real power, but you can take
advantage of such a thing as the UN peace-keeping if it corresponds with your
interests - the US economic costs could be minimized. Besides, UN
peacekeeping can promote a spirit of international accountability in solving
a certain regional problem. Don’t forget to explain your strategy to the
Congress - they don’t like the UN either. On the other hand, you have to
manage an international crisis, if it threatens our national interests (start
with strategic planning, check national security system for the adequate
response, use propaganda to get domestic and international support, consult
with big business and allies, start crisis negotiations if possible, use
diplomacy (see below) and force or threat of force).
30. To reach global leadership you must have enough resources, national
support and a well-calculated strategy (see also “Strategic planning”).
As you already know, the US budget is financed by foreign lending. When the
dollar goes down in foreign exchange markets, it’s supported by foreign
central banks and you’re OK as long as Japan, Saudi Arabia and Germany have
an interest in propping up the American economy and do not raise the price
for financing America’s debt. The worst situation would be to lose support
both at home and abroad.

5.2 What do you need Department of State for

The foreign policy of the United States is backed by a $ 13 trillion economy.

From 1947 until 1991, our foreign policy was characterized by the Cold War
to stop the spread of Soviet communism. The Cold War was characterized by a
lack of global wars but a persistence of regional wars, often fought between
client states and proxies of the United States and Soviet Union. During this
time, U.S. foreign policy objectives seeking to limit Soviet influence,
involved the United States and its allies in the Korean War, the Vietnam War,
the overthrow of the Iranian government, and diplomatic actions like the
“opening” of China and NATO establishment.
Our foreign policy demonstrates constant inability to combine strategic
military objectives and diplomatic and political objectives. This means an
ineffective follow-up to military operations by being unable to determine
diplomatic and political goals, resulting in unfavorable situations to either
the United States or its allies. Examples include the absence of any treaties
or objectives for post-war Germany and Europe during World War II, resulting
in the Soviet occupation of most of Eastern Europe; the absence of diplomatic
and political objectives to follow-up on military victory in Korean War
resulting in ongoing preservation of 1953 status-quo; inadequately defined
objectives for the Vietnam War, resulting in Communist take-over of the
region; the failure to develop plans to rebuild and re-stabilize Iraq after
the defeat of Saddam Hussein, leading to the ongoing destabilization of the
surrounding region and huge expenses required by the United States itself.
What to do ? No independence for the State Department (and its Secretary) -
it’s nothing but a “mail box” for your decisions. It has no mission and
its duty is to monitor the world (people call it the “Department of Bad
News”). Make it clear to the Secretary of State that he/she is not to
respond to events and not to influence any politician abroad - the State
Department has to follow the White House instructions only: don’t make
unnecessary enemies and don’t push any initiatives until you are further
instructed! Don’t send pointless cables to the White House Situation Room.
Every time you brief the press - ask the White House staff what to say. Meet
foreign leaders to make my message clear — nothing, absolutely nothing
else! And do me a favor – ask Mrs. Rice, the so-called “the most
influential woman in the world” what is Stabilization and Reconstruction
Office for ? what Pentagon guys are doing there ? who gave the money ? what
the hell is going on in this damned Dept of State ? now they do Iraq or what
Besides, the State Department cannot be taken seriously as it has no
natural domestic constituency like, say, Department of Defense, which can
call on defense contractors for support. It has negative constituents instead
— people who oppose US foreign policy. Congress has no respect for it and
looks upon it as an advocate of unpopular and costly foreign involvement. The
best thing to do is to leave ceremonial functions to the Secretary of State,
sending the person overseas mostly to VIP funerals.
(President George W. Bush is doing absolutely the right thing by sending his
Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice on endless and countless visits abroad.
If Ms. Rice read these pages, she would have understood that the President
keeps her far away from the White House because he does not need her and is
angry — most probably because of her own presidential ambitions — he sees
his brother in the Oval Office.)
After Madeleine Albright, Clinton’s Secretary of State, elected
international criminal Kofi Annan to be UN Secretary General, a President has
no choice but to stay far away from the State Dept. If you still hesitate,
read this pearl of foreign policy making: “Kofi Annan… he seemed born for
leadership. Annan … clearly the most qualified person. No one, from any
continent was more knowledgeable or better prepared” (M. Albright, Madam
Secretary, 2003).

A few words about your National Security Council staff. You take a risk by
using them for secret operations because in such cases you don’t have
congressional and public support. If the operation is exposed, you face huge
political problems. So before you start, do some strategic planning on future
consequences and design counter-measures.

5.3 World Domination

Securing the top position requires :
- economic domination
- military power — pre-emptive war or blackmail by war (seeking domination
requires an inevitable increase in the military budget)
- a cultural and media invasion
- special operations to influence or neutralize leaders with negative

To keep America on top, we would have to prevent cooperation and coalitions
China and Africa
Shi’ia and Sunni Muslims
Russia, Germany, and France
Venezuela and Cuba
Their trade agreements and alliances will change the geopolitical situation.

The US seems to have been responding to events rather than anticipating
them, which means that until now it has had no global international plan.
Watch where the “vectors of force” are directed and you’ll break their
strategic plans.
Don’t listen to experts — crude oil world resources will be finished by
the middle of the century. Get total control over the world oil market by
force (Iraq and Iran) and take care of the weapons market — knock out
Russia and restrain China (restrict their military research activity —
Chinese nuclear and other WMD had better be our top priority in the next 20

In most important world regions keep the balance by supporting the country
which follows the leader:

In Europe — support Britain to balance Germany. You rule Europe if you rule
the Persian Gulf. You rule the world if you rule Europe, and that’s why you
have to keep NATO by all means to block the military independence of Europe
(Germany). And watch Russia — it’s still highly militarized and holds
Europe a hostage.
In East Asia - support Japan, Russia and Taiwan to balance China.
In South Asia support Pakistan to balance India.
In Latin America — support Argentina to balance Brazil.
Our country is considered to be a superpower, though European Union, China,
Russia and India have good potential of achieving the same status. They all
have large populations, growing military strength, economic potential and
influence in international affairs. We are superpower, but we have to admit
that it does not mean that the world is unipolar – at present it’s a
unipolar system with one superpower and several rivals, major powers.

China. As one of five permanent members of the UN Security Council with
veto power, China possesses influence in world politics. It’s gradually
increasing its influence in areas which are traditionally dominated by the
West due to non-ideological approach to foreign affairs and offer of
no-strings-attached assistance, which thus presents an alternative for
seeking foreign aid and potential allies. China is the second largest
consumer of petroleum products after USA, and the Middle East is a
strategically important region as it not only possesses vast oil reserves,
but large portions of its population are opposed to the States. At the same
time these nations are keen to diversify their customer base away from
overdependence on the Western market. China has other strategic interests
there and this is manifested in its security relationships with Saudi Arabia,
Pakistan and Iran, which entail WMD and ballistic missile cooperation –
direct threat to American aircraft carriers. These three countries are
pivotal states in the region and they already view China as alternate source
of security and as a counterbalance to American power.
China is intent upon establishing a preeminent sphere of influence in
Southeast Asia and is taking steps to form a political, economic and security
bloc with ASEAN countries. In 2006 China hosted the heads of states of 48
African countries in Beijing’s Forum on China-Africa Cooperation Summit and
now African leaders regularly cite China as an ideal development model for
their countries. Then comes South America – during a visit to Brazil,
Argentina, Chile and Cuba in 2004, President Hu Jintao announced $100 billion
worth of investment over the next 10 years. Besides, China is expanding its
military-to-military contacts by training Latin American military personnel.
China’s foreign exchange reserves reached $1 trillion becoming the largest
in the world. This country is the world’s second biggest spender on
research and development and currently has an estimated 926,000 researches ,
second in number only to the 1.3 million in the United States.

India. India’s strength lies in its demographics – more than 50% of its
population is under 25.
India has been pressing for permanent membership of the UN Security Council
but without veto ability (it has received backing from the UK, France and
Russia while China and USA opposed). India is everybody’s friend, including
EU, Japan, Russia, South Africa, Arab World, China and Israel. India is a
good balance for China and it’s a question of the world’s stability. The
economy of India is currently the world’s largest after the USA, China and
Japan. India possesses nuclear weapons, but it’s not a signatory to the
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty on grounds of security concerns and that
India condemns the Treaty as discriminatory.

Russia. Russia is both energy and nuclear superpower with fast-growing
economy and it’s not very far from achieving superpower status. It’s
the number 2 military power in the world , second only to the United States.
Russia produced the world’s most powerful conventional bomb and the
world’s most advanced anti-ballistic missile system.

Brazil. Agricultural and oil superpower with one of the largest defense
budgets and armed forces in the world.

The US has to create and support the most attractive (stable and profitable)
image for foreign investors against the background of some other countries
and regimes. A credible world disorder strategy would seem appropriate for
that (and once you get Iraq’s oil and Iran’s natural gas, establish a
sufficiently stable environment there for American big business).

Foreign Policy Top Secret— the “Democracy Trick”
It’s all about natural resources and raw materials.

General scheme:
choose the target country
start war or “push” opposition to launch a coup
bring in “liberal values”
help to move oil and gas into private hands
help to create an “open economy” and “open market”
become the only (the biggest) customer and stockholder

OIL RESERVES BY COUNTRY 2007 ( in billions of barrels)

1. Saudi Arabia 260
2. Canada 179
3. Iran 136
4. Iraq 115
5. Kuwait 99
6. United Arab Emirates 97
7. Venezuela 80
8. Russia 60
9. Libya 41.5
10. Nigeria 36.2
11. USA 21
12. Mexico 12

NATURAL GAS RESERVES 2007 (in billion m3)

1. Russia 47,570
2. Iran 26,620
3. Qatar 25,770
4. United Arab Emirates 6,006
5. USA 5,451
6. Algeria 5,000
7. Nigeria 4,984
8. Venezuela 4,276
9. Iraq 3,115
10. Indonesia 2,760
11. China 2,350
12. Malaysia 2,124

National security strategy is dead if we legally allow war crimes.

5.4 Diplomacy

Diplomacy is, first, the art and practice of, first, political espionage,
second, conducting negotiations between representatives of groups and states.
It usually refers to international diplomacy, the conduct of internatioal
relations through the intercession of professional diplomats and spies with
regard to issues of peace-making, trade, war, economics and culture.
Diplomacy can be defined as taking responsibility for getting your own need
in a way that preserves the dignity of others. It includes open inoffensive
communication (tricks, too), flexibility, specific wording, a positive
approach, being nonjudgmental an demonstrating a relaxed manner both verbally
and nonverbally. The key mechanism of diplomacy is to achieve your goals
without evoking hostility of other interested parties.
Diplomacy serves to maintain smooth relations between states and resolve
disputes. The goal of American diplomacy is to further our interests
worldwide, safeguard our independence and security and to seek maximum
national advantage without using force and preferably without causing
resentment. Actually, diplomacy is just a set of negotiating techniques by
which we carry out the foreign policy. The United States has diplomatic
relations with 155 countries, where Ambassadors are the personal
representatives of the President as well as representatives of the Department
of State. Each Ambassador heads a “country team” which includes a deputy
chief of mission, heads of political, economic, consular and administrative
sections; defense, agricultural and foreign commercial service attaches; a
public affairs office; and, as needed, representatives of other agencies. As
I’ve recommended above, the State Department should be removed from foreign
policy making and re-positioned as a service station or a “mail box” for
your decisions. It’s a tough job, but don’t you worry — you have a
perfect tool which is called diplomatic appointment (a career diplomat is
always a career bureaucrat).
Of course, the State Department wants to promote its own career senior
foreign service officers to the Ambassadors’ positions. They say they have
experience, but you don’t need them once you’ve got this handbook for
your people. Besides, their careers are not dependent on you but on a
self-run promotion system, and because many regard foreign policy as an
endeavor that should not be subject to partisan politics, foreign service
officers have a greater reputation for resisting your policies than your
people — political appointees. Trust me, the Senate will be on your side if
you start a large scale substitution.

One more thing — for specific diplomatic missions you can use your
personal emissaries who are not subject to Senate confirmation. It allows you
to transfer your proposals directly into negotiations without having to go
through the State Department, and to have absolutely independent source of
information. Usually, when presidents of states more or less equal in
strength negotiate, they feel free to do whatever they feel is right. With
the American President the situation must be different — your partners may
disagree with you but they can’t ignore any of your statements. ( You can
also use Track II diplomacy, in which non-officials (academic scholars,
retired civil and military officials, public figures, social activists)
engage in dialogue with the aim of conflict resolution or
confidence-building, such as between the USA and China. Sometimes the
exchanges (Track III) may have no connections with the government, or may
even act in defiance of the government, like 2008 President Carter meeting
with Hamas senior officials in Egypt).

You have to balance and bargain inside a triangle which includes big
business, Congress and foreign leaders. Why big business? Because it will
help you with economic problems caused by trends in the world economy.
That’s not the end of your problems — you have to balance between
something else. Modern diplomacy is a very complicated business — there’s
actually little privacy and secrecy left because our beloved media penetrates
everywhere. Your plans and initiatives are being published worldwide right
before you meet your partner and then what? What are you going to do? Change
your whole strategy? Your partner will draw conclusions and won’t say a
word out of respect for the US President. A good thing is — you can
manipulate the media to some extent and form a favorable international
opinion. More important, you can speak to other leaders through the media
rather than through private negotiations — everywhere worldwide they read
every word of the White House statements. And if you think there are two of
you in the Oval Office — you and you partner — that’s a mistake —
there are four: you, your partner, the media and public opinion.
Congress is a smaller problem for your diplomacy. Here you have advantages
in treaty making: first, you decide what treaties to negotiate, second you
choose negotiators, third, you develop the negotiating strategy, fourth, you
submit completed draft treaties for the Senate approval. And you, not the
Senate (as Americans think), have the final power of ratification — once
the Senate has approved the treaty, it does not become a law until you ratify
it. If you decide to ratify a treaty the Senate has approved, an exchange of
ratifications occur between the signatories. Then the treaty is promulgated
(officially proclaimed to be a law) by you. At any time you can stop the
treaty-making process, and after a treaty is ratified, you have the authority
to terminate it without Senate consent. Once the US negotiators have agreed
upon the terms of a treaty with a foreign government, you must decide whether
to submit the draft to the Senate for consideration. If it appears that the
Senate opposition to a treaty will make approval unlikely, you may decide to
withdraw the treaty to avoid a visible political defeat.
If you decide to submit a treaty to the Senate for consideration, the
Constitution requires that a two-thirds majority of Senators vote in favor of
the treaty for it to be approved. The problem is, the Senate may attach
amendments to a treaty that require you to re-negotiate its terms with other
signatories before the Senate grants its approval, but you may decide not to
re-negotiate. Yes, the Senate has to approve the treaty, but you can avoid
the battle on Capitol Hill by signing executive agreements with foreign
governments (like trade agreements, defense pacts, arms control agreements).
They don’t require approval and give you greater flexibility in foreign
policy. And you have one more important tool — an executive order that has
the force of law without being approved by Congress. Most executive orders
pertain to government officials and agencies, but they also may implement
legislative statutes or help reinforce Constitution or treaties.

5.4. 1 "Golden" rules

1. Use secret visits (send the National Security Adviser) if the
international problem is complex and important — in this way you don’t
depend on media and public opinion. Afterwards you can talk, if it was a
2. If presidents like to drink with each other, they are ready to deal with
each other.
3. Avoid negotiating on major issues at the end of the day, when your energy
is low.
4. Negotiate smart, watch your initiatives. The more you tell about your
position, the less your partner will tell you about himself, and the higher
price you’ll pay. Diplomacy is all about money and the essence of any
negotiations is the price range.
5. Any information should be exchanged as a part of a compromise and not
merely given away.
6. Always talk less than necessary. Concentrate on facts and never tell other
person about feelings (or your family and medical problems). Don’t
interrupt others, try to understand what they really want and if they try to
manipulate you. Also, resist giving in to interruptions until you have
completed your thoughts – “Just a moment, I haven’t finished”. Use
Taleyran approximation – if it’s difficult for you to speak up, try to
make just one diplomatic statement. If they press you, insist on moving this
questions to experts. And use indirect language such as “It looks like”
or “You see situation from a very special angle”.
7. No negative emotions - strong emotions indicate weak nerves. Realize that
there might be other issues motivating the other person’s behavior and
never take things personally.
8. Stop self-limiting behaviors, such as smiling too much, nodding too much,
tilting your head or dropping your eyes in response to other person’s gaze.
Speak I normal conversational volume, don’t scream and don’t whisper,
either, as you won’t be taken seriously.
9. Take a problem-solving approach to conflict, and try to see the other
person as your collaborator rather than your opposition. You’d better
postpone negotiations than allow them to break down.
10. Fix all questions and don’t be in a rush to answer any of them.
11. The slower you talk, the more confident you are.
12. Never ask straight questions.
13. It’s important to know what questions and when you have to ask. Start
with an “invitation” question that does not need a definite answer but
opens up the discussion, like: “No matter what reporters say, we’ll start
negotiating for arms control.” Proceed with “intelligence gathering”
questions, like: “Are you going to abide by our last agreement on the
withdrawal of military forces or do we have other options?” Go to
“expertise” questions, like: “It’s 5000 soldiers, right? ”
There’s a difference between expertise and straight questions - straight
question are like: “Will you sign the treaty?” and these have to be
avoided because you’ll get no straight answer right away. Finish with a
closing question, like: “I think that’s what we intend to sign? Next time
we can start from here.” Or you can press your partner: “Let’s not lose
this last opportunity, eh?”
14. Explain your negative attitude in a smart way: give half the information
and continue, depending on your partner’s reaction. If you can’t accept
his proposal, tell him that the experts may look into it again and come to
agreement. If your partner is not a complete idiot he’ll understand his
proposal is unacceptable (because the experts have already done all they
could). But if he is an idiot, he’ll agree to “kill” his proposals by
passing them to the experts.
You start to lose momentum if you start to defend yourself.
15. Stop (postpone) negotiations the moment you start to lose or you could
end up in a total failure and that could be used by opposition back home.
16. If you bring ideology - try to win. If you bring national interests, try
to find compromise. Be flexible — that’s a sign of strength, not
17. Don’t make aggressive statements for the media, no matter what.
18. Respect is half a victory, but you usually win when your partner is
scared. Avoid open confrontation and respond to personal attacks with humor.
19. Watch the military experts - they are always ready to “push” you. No
arms agreement can win ratification without backing from Joint Chiefs,
because Congress needs and trusts their expertise, and their disapproval is a
strong tool against you in case you ignore their advice. So, think three
times before you appoint Joint Chiefs.
20. Take negotiations on the trade deficit very seriously — they often take
you nowhere and have zero results as your partner wants you to change your
attitude to him completely as well as your international economic policy,
while you expect the same favor from him. You can influence one partner but
you can’t very easily influence the international system.
21. After you come back home do some positive advertising through the media
— in such a way you influence other presidents and future negotiations. If
the negotiations resulted in a treaty, “sell” it to the Senate for
22. Negotiation no-nos:
- don’t be confused if your partner threatens you — that means he needs
your cooperation. Don’t enter into negotiation right away with high
- don’t touch the toughest issues first. Don’t assume — that’s a sign
of weakness.
- don’t hesitate to pause or take a break.
- never say “no” to your partner’s ideas — rather, pack them up in
one “package” with your proposals. The Reykjavik American-Soviet summit
(1986) on intermediate-range nuclear missiles is a perfect example of a
“package”. The U.S. President Reagan wanted to include human rights,
Jewish immigration and Soviet intervention in Afghanistan in the talks. The
USSR President Michail Gorbachev said “no”, arms control only. Then
Gorbachev attacked – he wanted to put American Strategic Defense Initiative
(“Star Wars”) in one “package” with eliminating intermediate-range
nuclear forces in Europe and reducing NATO tactical weapons and Warsaw Pact
conventional forces. Reagan kissed him “good-bye”.

5.4.2 Negotiations Procedure

I. Preparation

1. Write a plan.
2. Define your objectives.
3. Identify issues that are open to compromise and those that are not.
4. Conduct research for information to support your objectives and have
information to undermine your partner’s position; think what information is
available to your partner (State and Defense Departments will help you with
that; not the CIA).
5. Find out how your partner negotiates with other leaders (he might have a
“rabbit in a hat” for you).
6. Consult with members of a previous negotiating team about his style,
strong and weak points.
7. Check the current balance of power. Attention: if you start multilateral
negotiation you have to know what are the conflicts or allegiances between
other partners. If they are divided into groups, identify who has the power
to make a decision on behalf of a group.
8. Use game theory if you are intending to cooperate. Game theory is a
theoretical analysis of the decision-making process taken by two or more
players who are in conflict. You must actually estimate any possible
strategies of the players who have to make decisions without knowledge of
what other players are planning. Each player’s strategy, once undertaken,
will affect the others. Game theory is often illustrated by the “prisoners
dilemma” paradigm. It supposes that two men have been arrested on a
suspicion of committing a crime together and are being held in separate
cells. There is not enough evidence to prosecute unless one confesses and
implicates the other. Both of them know this but cannot talk to each other.
The dilemma is that the best outcome, not being convicted, is only available
if they each trust the other not to implicate him. If X decides to trust Y,
but Y fears X may not be trustworthy, Y may confess to get a lesser sentence;
X then gets a worse one. The best solution to this dilemma is for both to
cooperate, to minimize the worst that can happen, rather than trying for the
outcome that is maximum. This is called the minimax strategy and it’s
classified as being the most probable outcome.

II. Conducting negotiations

Never conduct negotiations before 10 a.m. or after 4 p.m.
First of all, you have to decide whether you want to speak first or to
respond to your partner’s proposal. There’s an advantage in letting your
partner make the opening proposal as it might be much more beneficial for you
than you suspect.


a) put forward a proposal (with as little emotion as possible). You have to
make your initial offer-demand high and compromise from that point onward.
Your partner will understand perfectly well it’s too much, so make your
initial demand greater than you expect to receive, and offer less than you
are expected to give. (For the same reason feel free to reject the first
proposal received.) While talking further, leave yourself room for
maneuvering, presenting your proposals, and don’t try to pin down your
partner to a fixed position too soon, because he needs room to maneuver, too.
Make a final offer when the atmosphere is most cooperative.
b) respond to proposals in a smart way (again, no emotions). Never take the
first offer - if you take it, your adversary may feel there is something
wrong with it or he didn’t get the best deal.Capture any similarities on
both sides. Don’t hesitate to make conditional counter-offers: “If you do
this, we’ll do that.” Cut the unexpected introduction of new issues and
follow strictly a concise step-by-step agenda. Probe your partner’s
attitudes: “What would you say if we both lower our demands?” but
indicate that every concession you make is a major loss to you. Ask as many
questions as you want — the more information you have, the more you control
negotiation. To think over and re-design your strategy, ask for a break as
many times as it’s acceptable. Summarize your partner’s proposals.
c) move towards a bargain. You must know perfectly well the response to each
of your points before you open your mouth. If your aides can’t help you,
you have the wrong aides and you even might be a wrong president. Offer the
lowest price first, as you may not need to go any further. Negotiate a
“package,” don’t concentrate on one demand and link other, smaller
demands to it. While making a final offer look at the other party and check
the body language (see below), your team members must confirm by body
language that this is your final offer. It’s OK to press the partner by
emphasizing the need to reach agreement, like: “We know our nations are
waiting to see the treaty signed.” (If your partner looks at his watch, it
means he wants to end the talk.) If you see you are approaching a dead end,
ask your partner to talk off the record, in private, but if you talk in
private, you have to keep your word no matter what.

Sometimes negotiations (as in the Israel-Palestine case) run into serious
problems and breakdowns. Strong diplomats never say “never” and never
leave forever, and always are ready to come back and agree right away on new
dates to continue talks, as though a breakdown is just one more pressure
trick. The best thing to do is to re-establish communications as soon as
possible and you have to do this through your team member who has good
connections and influence with other party. Act fast, especially if the
consequences of “no deal” would be worse than the last deal that was on
the table. If the situation is not improving, you have nothing else but to
use a mediator. I do not recommend you to take responsibility as mediator or
to use a mediator for your diplomatic needs. International experience shows
that these old and “experienced” people usually make the situation worse,
like bringing in a lawyer — even if the situation looks better for the next
couple of years. But if you have no choice and your partner, and your aides
insist on using a mediator to resolve the situation you have to think it over
… and agree.

Mediation is the process in which deadlocked parties consider the
suggestions of a third party, agreed upon in advance, but are not bound to
accept the mediator’s recommendations. The mediator works as a referee
between the negotiating parties and tries to find common ground among their
agendas. Once some common ground is established, the mediator can begin to
look for mutually acceptable ways out of the deadlock. A mediator between
presidents has to be a president himself, very influential, and well informed
on the situation to be able to make effective recommendations.
He has to:
a) consider the situation from all angles
b) help both parties to understand each other better
c) help the parties to create new approaches
d) suggest a solution, give alternatives

But if the two sides’ demands are too far apart, no outside party can bring
them together at all. ( Often a mediator has to make multiple trips between
two parties, who do not talk directly, and it’s called shuttle diplomacy.
Usually, two parties do not formally recognize each other, but still want to
negotiate. The term became widespread following Henry Kissinger’s term as
National Security Advisor and then, as the United States Secretary of State
(in 1973-1977), when he participated in shuttle diplomacy in the Middle East
and China).

III. Closing negotiation

That’s the most important part, a final mutual agreement or disagreement, a
test for your foreign policy making strategy and tactics and personally for
you, your power and your image. Any treaty you sign with foreign leaders, if
it meets American interests, is not your personal success, but that of the
nation. There are three options:
a) the agreement with all conditions is acceptable to both parties
b) the agreement is acceptable to one party only
c) the agreement is unacceptable for both parties

5.4.3 Diplomatic tricks

Tricks in diplomacy are usually used to distract your hard working team,
shift the emphasis of the negotiation in order to shape the deal on terms of
your adversary or manipulate your team into closing negotiation and accept
terms you don’t really like. And the tricks are:

“Leap” - your adversary is losing and starts “jumping” from one point
to another
“Pile” - your adversary “piles up” problems, tries to provoke a
chaotic discussion or stop negotiations
“Empty chair” - a day or two before negotiations start your adversary
informs you that he’s not ready yet, trying to press you (or he wants to
change location)
“Diplomatic illness” – the practice of feigning illness to avoid
participation in negotiations and at the same time to avoid giving formal
“Deaf” - your adversary keeps asking questions instead of answering yours
“Provocation” — your adversary doubts your team’s professional level
and your ability to negotiate
“Busy guy” — your adversary breaks negotiation for an hour or two
pretending he has to do some very important business (or that he got a very
important call).
“Mirror” - it’s a very interesting “programming” trick. The
technology is simple: you try to “mirror” your adversary’s style and
behavior, adopt a similar posture, use his gestures, and follow the speed of
his speech. First, he will like it subconsciously and will be more open to
you. Second, you’ll understand better his way of thinking.
“Sandwich” - pressure (often — military) — negotiations — pressure
“Show” - using certain arguments your adversary appeals to your emotions
“Circle” - a very sophisticated trick: your adversary tries to “push”
his proposal in different variants and finally comes back to his initial
variant, trying to convince you that’s the best choice
“Carrot and stick” - threat (blackmail) plus promises (money). The guy
could blackmail you also by demanding to set a deadline
“Student” - your adversary talks too much about the details, asking a lot
of minor questions, trying to make you nervous and make mistakes
“Donkey” – your adversary declines the ofer to speak frst
“Ball” - encourage your adversary if he’s looking for “global
decisions” and he’ll do a lot of minor favors
“Rubber” - delay, if you can’t predict the result, and press your
adversary by delaying the answer
“Last train” - you can press your adversary by an ultimatum right before
negotiations are over, if he really is interested in some result. “Spice”
the ultimatum with some important reasons and give your adversary a choice
of variants.

You can also leak opposing demands to the media (be careful with this one. Do
not betray diplomatic trust by talking about secret deals or demands that
actually have been mentioned). You may also escalate your demands during
negotiation and manipulate public opinion to line up behind your demands.

Diplomatic Double Talk
Statement Meaning

We are disappointed. We got
Situation disturbs us. It’s
unacceptable no matter what.
There are still differences between There are huge
our approaches to the problem .
We can’t accept this deal. This means
We reserve the right to use any means
to prevent further worsening of the situation. This means war.
Discussion helped us to understand each
other better.
We’ve wasted our time.
We don’t understand your attitude. Stop it
I’m trying to understand your position. Understand me
too, idiot!
If I’ve understood you correctly, you don’t agree. Do you have any
other option?
We both will pay a very high price if we don’t
reach agreement. Yes,
that’s a threat!

Body Language

It’s very good to have someone in your team who is attuned to, and can
read, body language and help you to “crack” your opponent. Here are some
signals (codes) and their meanings:

Partner is sitting upright with hands loosely crossed in front of him.
He is ready to accept proposal and finish negotiation.
Partner is smiling unnecessarily and is speaking fast.
He’s nervous.
Partner looks and turns his lower body toward the exit.
He wants to leave.
Open palm gesture.
I’m open and I’m telling the truth.
He’s leaning his body forward.
He’s ready to assist you to get out of the situation.
Wide open eyes and a smile.
He wants to be persuaded.
Raised eyebrows.
Negative surprise.
Chin rests on knuckles.
eady to listen (with interest).
Neutral facial expression.
Unformed opinion.
Gesturing a hand.
Adding emphasis.
Indirect gaze.
Crossing arms or legs.
Leaning back on a chair.
Leaning forward.
His team’s members exchange glances.
They are sure they’ve won.

5.4.3 Protocol

1. Informal parties (family-style meals, buffet lunches and suppers,
barbecues, picnics and tea parties) are the best place to meet different
people – that’s what a diplomat is being payd for.
2. The key to any event is to move the guests around so they can talk to
different people (accomplish this by serving in several rooms, planning
interactive games or music and dancing).
3. Don’t talk much – you have to meet as much people as you can. Watch
your speech patterns – do you interrupt people when they are speaking ? do
you finish other people’s statements ? if so, you are trying to monopolize
the conversation. Important – the best way to handle recognizing someone
without recalling his or her name is to mention your name again ( “Good
evening, I’m John Stuart. We met recently at… I’m pleased to see you
again”. Most likely, the person will reintroduce himself/herself). 4. Stand
up when ambassador and his/her spouse enter the room, and allow him/her to
enter and exit a room first. When making introductions, introduce someone to
the more distinguished or older person.
5. Do not arrive starved.
6. Entertaining widens your circle of friends and facilitates the informal
exchange of information. Events can be hosted at your home, a local
restaurant, or club. Representational events need not be large, elaborate,
or expensive, and a simple lunch or a backyard barbeque can be more effective
than an elaborate dinner or reception.
7. At formal events both the guest of honor and other guests must know who
has the place of honor. In the United States, the place of honor for a man is
at the right of the hostess; for a woman , it is at the right of the host.
However, in some countries, the place of honor is at the left of the
host/hostess. The host and hostess can sit at opposite ends or across from
one another at the same table. They may also be seated at separate tables. If
so, each chooses a co-host and co-hostess, creating two more seats of honor.
Co-hosts and co-hostesses are usually ranking guests or colleagues from the
U.S. Mission. After the guest of honor and the host(ess) or co-host(ess) are
seated, the arrangement goes by rank, gender, and nationality. As a general
rule,couples sit across the table from each other, not side-by-side.
8. If you don’t wish to drink alcohol, still take some to have in your
glass for toasts. (In most countries, a guest who is being toasted remains
seated and does not drink to the toast. The honored guest makes a reply by
standing and offering a toast to the host and hostess).If, for health or
religious reasons, you absolutely cannot try even a small portion of a
particular food or drink, it is acceptable to refuse with a short
explanation. Hosts of diplomatic dinners often offer two toasts, one being a
welcome toast to everyone in the room (this toast is usually offered after
the first course is served to all guests). Another toast to the guest of
honor is offered at the beginning or at the end of the dessert course. When
giving a toast , rise in place and speak to the entire room. Raise your
glass to eye level and look toward the honored person and drink, making eye
contact with the honored person. You should then nod and put your glass on
the table and sit down. The person being toasted should never drink to
himself/herself. A nod or smile of appreciation can suffice for a response,
or the honored person can return the toast by rising afterwards and offering
a formal response.

Formal “Black Tie” or “White Tie”. Male attire : black, hip-length
coat without tails and with silk or satin lapels (a white dinner coat may be
worn in hot weather and the tropics); low-cut black waistcoat or cummerbund
may be worn with a single-breasted coat; black trousers; white starched or
pleated shirt or a soft evening shirt with studs instead of buttons; wing,,
turn-down, or attached collar and black bow tie; blsck shoes and socks; hats
and gloves are optional but not worn or carried indoors. Female attire:
knee-length cocktail dress; floor-length ball gown; long skirt with top;
high-heeled shoes or dressy flats; above-elbow gloves and short gloves may
be worn with a long-sleeved gown. If worn, gloves need not be removed for a
receiving line or dancing, but are removed prior to eating or drinking.
Semi-formal/Informal. Male attire: dark suit; tie or bow tie; dark shoes
and socks. Female attire: short cocktail dress; gloves are optional;
high-heeled shoes or dressy flats.
Casual. Male attire: business suit (light or dark) or sports jacket and
pants; tie or bow tie; dress shoes or loafers. Female attire: business suit
or daytime dress; pumps or flats; head coverings may be considered a
requirement at some events. Wide-brim hats may also provide welcome and
necessary protection from the sun.

5.4.3 Tips on cultural differences

United States of America
Americans’ lives revolve around work. Keep your distance when conversing
with them, don’t stare – it’s a very rude behavior. They don’t
hesitate to say “no” , are opportunistic and willing to take chances,
future oriented and consistent. Say “please” and “thank you” as often
as you can. They are often uncomfortable with silence. Always be on time and
meet deadlines. Meetings are generally informal and relaxed in manner, but
serious in content (participation is expected – a quiet person may be
viewed as not prepared). They appreciate and are impressed by numbers
(statistics). They often begin negotiations with unacceptable conditions.
Persistence is another characteristic – there is a prevailing belief that
there is always a solution. In a business setting the person extending the
invitation to a meal pays for it. Most government employees are not allowed
to accept gifts. Cash gifts are never appropriate.

Russians are transactional and do not need to establish long-standing
personal relationships. Most of them don’t trust people who are “all
business”. Typical Russian schedules are constantly changing and everything
takes longer than expected. Expect some period of socializing before business
is discussed. Russians expect long and detailed presentations that include a
history of the subject and a review of existing precedents.
Meetings and negotiations are slow – Russians do not like being rushed.
Hierarchy is important – they respect age, rank and position. Russians see
negotiations as win-lose and don’t believe in win-win scenarios. They view
compromise as weakness and will continue negotiating until you offer
concessions. Russians may lose their temper, walk out of the meeting or
threaten to terminate it in san attempt to coerce your position. They often
use time as tactic, especially if they know you have a deadline. Nothing is
final until te document is signed, and even then they try to modify it to
suit their purposes

United Kingdom.
England is a kingdom within the United Kingdom, and ignoring the subdivisions
of the United Kingdom and referring to the whole as “England” is
insulting to the inhabitants of Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Look
reserved, but usually they are friendly and helpful to foreigners, especially
women. Don’t stare and stand too close. It doesn’t matter what country
you are from – try to be a 100% gentleman. Men should open doors for
women and stand when a woman enters a room. Don’t insult the Royal Family
or show great interest in their private lives. Don’t ask personal questions
and don’t talk about money. Don’t shout or be loud in public places,
except Hyde Park.

The Republic of Ireland has been independent of the United Kingdom since 1922
– keep that in mind. To Irish people, you are Irish if you grew up or were
born in Ireland. In Northern Ireland be particularly aware that some people
identify as “Irish” while others identify as “British”. Asking people
whether they are Catholic or Protestant is insensitive. Very famous for
drinking strong alcohol (whisky), but they respect reserved behavior. Do
not stare at people – that means you want to fight (for a man), or you want
to kiss (for a woman). Courteous, quick-witted and will go out of their way
to welcome visitors to their country. Don’t rush the Irish. Creative and
calm in crisis, but poor in long-range planning. Strong negotiators and want
to do things their way.

Hungarians tend to take criticism very badly, and it may be interpreted as
expression of discontent. Avoid discussing the outcomes of World wars I and
II and socialist era – there is no agreement of those times. Royalty and
aristocracy is considered to be a thing of the past and “undemocratic”.
Smoking is very common in low-class circles; in upper classes it is not, and
even can be shame to light a cigarette.

Dutch are proud of their culture, history and involvement in international
affairs. Reserved, value privacy and are extremely direct in their
communication – they do not use hyperbole, and likewise they expect to be
told “yes” or “no” in clear words. Being late may mark you as
untrustworthy and someone who may not meet other deadlines . Take punctuality
very seriously. They are extremely adept at dealing with foreigners (the
most successful traders in Europe; they are direct, giving straight “yes”
or “no”. Dutch can be tough detail -oriented negotiators and don’t like
to take risks. They prefer to get down to business quickly and engage in
relatively little small talk. Do not deviate from agenda. The important
thing is to demonstrate your relationship would be beneficial for both sides.
Once decisions are made, it will not be changed. implementation is fast and
efficient. Commitments are taken seriously and are honored. It is considered
to leave the table during dinner (even to go to the bathroom). Do not call
the Netherlands “Holland”. Holland is a region within the Netherlands. Do
not discuss money or prices or ask personal questions.

Norwegians are excellent time managers and direct communicators ;
conservative and deliberate speakers who do not appreciate being rushed. They
are scrupulous about honesty in communication, often to the point of pointing
out the negatives in their own proposals in greater detail than the
positives. Their body language is subtle.. Appearing overly friendly may be
viewed as weakness. Maintaining eye contact while speaking is interpreted as
sincerity. Meetings are informal, but they prefer to get to discussion
quickly. Decisions are consensus driven.

Danes are very punctual. Shake hands with everyone upon arriving and leaving,
handshakes should be very firm and rather short; always shake hands with
women first. Negotiate without deviations. Use facts, figures and charts to
back up statements and conclusions. Danes prefer to get down to business
quickly; communication is frank and direct. Decisions are made after
consulting with everyone involved.

Canada has been divided into two distinct societies – French-speaking
(Quebec) and English-speaking. Canadians are more reserved than Americans.
Canada is a country where negotiations often begin with informal meetings.
Canadians can be agreeable and they are often gracious hosts though thy
don’t have difficulty in saying “no”. Decisions are not rushed and a
certain amount of caution is advised.Punctuality is demanded. When in Quebec,
learn a little French – people greatly appreciate that. Do not compare
Canada with the United States. Do not take sides in debates about contentious
national issues (status of Quebec, the place of French and English languages
in Canada). Don’t eat while waling or standing on the street in Quebec.

The Third Reich is a sensitive subject; Nazi symbolism and gestures are
illegal in Germany, as is denying the Holocaust. It is impolite to
ask how someone will vote in a specific matter. Socially, Germans lean toward
conservatism and conformism. Germans are uneasy with uncertainty,
ambiguity and unquantifiable risk and put heavy emphasis on careful planning,
consideration and consultation. Fear of the unknown makes Germans very
apprehensive about risk and they analyze proposals thoroughly. Decisions have
nothing to do with personal relationships between politicians and will be
made on facts that demonstrate a sound opportunity with minimal risk. Do not
rush proceedings or apply pressure. They rarely change their decisions.
Appear reserved and unfriendly until you get to know them better. Never put
your hands in your pockets when talking to someone. Don’t point your
index figure to your own head – this is an insult. They are hard
bargainers. Decision making is slow with thorough analysis of all facts. Do
not call a German at home unless it is an emergency. Don’t be offended if
someone corrects your behavior – policing each other is seen as a social
duty. Don’t chew gum in public.

French cherish their culture, history, language and food. Not finishing
one’s food implies that the taste or quality was poor and it could not be
eaten or the host does not correctly serve the quantity of food one needs.
Not finishing the wine is considered very rude as it indicates that the host
has served a wine of poor quality. Bringing a bottle of wine to someone’s
house for dinner suggests that the hosts won’t be providing wine of
adequate quality. Don’t sit with legs spread apart; don’t use toothpicks,
nail clippers, and combs in public; keep your hands out of your pockets. Many
of them speak and understand English, but prefer not to use it. Don’t
discuss personal life with business people. French communication style is
direct, questioning and probing. The French get down to business quickly, but
make decisions slowly (they are leaders in economic planning). Negotiations
can become passionate; argumentation is not meant to be confrontational but
rather a means to analyze deeply.Give a good quality gift or none at all.
Don’t ask personal questions related to occupation, family or children
unless you have a well-established friendship. Try to demonstrate some
knowledge of history, politics and French culture. The French do not tell or
like to hear jokes, instead they prefer intelligent and satirical real life
stories. “OK” gesture means “zero” or “worthless” in France.

Nodding is very important. In greeting or thanking another person, it may
be insulting if the person of lower status does not bow appropriately lower
(foreigners are never expected to bow, they often do it incorrectly and look
stupid).Silence is a natural and expected form of non-verbal communication.
Sit erect . Any degree of knowledge of Japanese culture is greatly
appreciated. Avoid saying “no’. Drinking is a group activity; never say
“no’ when offered a drink. At dinner wait for the toast before you drink.
“Maybe” means “no”. A smile or laughter from a Japanese may mean
they are feeling nervous or uncomfortable, and not necessarily happy.
Business cards should be given and accepted with both hands. It is expected
that the cards will immediately be inspected and admired, then placed on the
table in front of the receiver for the duration of the meeting. After the
meeting, cards should be stored respectfully and should never be placed in
back pocket. It’s a faux pas to accept a gift when it is first offered and
the giver is expected to offer it multiple times (gifts are not generally
opened in the giver’s presence). At a meeting you will always deal with a
team opposed to an individual. The lesser ranking attendees will usually do
the talking or negotiating. Japanese are very detail oriented – expect lots
of questions and questions repeated in different ways. Do not disagree
openly. Be sure to hold off concessions till the end of proceedings, if made
early your integrity will be questioned. Silence is considered a virtue, so
never interrupt or break the silence.

You must be patient since impatience is viewed as criticism of the culture.
Kuwaitis respect education, so carefully mention if you have an advanced
degree, especially if it’s from a prestigious university. Meetings may be
interrupted if they interfere with prayer times. Expect frequent
interruptions. Kuwaitis are event rather than time-driven (the event of
getting together is more important). Decisions are reached slowly. Repeating
your main points indicates you are telling the truth. Problems may be
discussed outside the meeting in a one-on-one format rather than in the
group. Proposals should be kept simple.

The Chinese are not keen on physical contact – especially when doing
business. The only circumstance in which it may take place is when a host is
guiding a host, and even then contact will only be made by holding a cuff or
sleeve. Be sure not to slap, pat or put your arm around someone’s
shoulders. Be prepared for long meetings and lengthy negotiations. There
maybe periods of silence at a meeting; do not interrupt these. A contract is
considered a draft subject to change. Punctuality is vital and late arrivals
are seen as insult. Above all, be patient and never show anger. You must be
willing to show compromise. Chinese negotiators are tough and may try to
make you feel guilty about setbacks. Two Chinese negotiating tricks designed
to make you agree to concessions are staged tantrums and a feigned sense of
urgency. If the Chinese side no longer wishes to pursue the deal, they may
not tell you; to save their own face, they may become increasingly inflexible
and hard-nosed, forcing you to break negotiations – in this way, they may
blame for the failure. Dining is used to probe positions without any formal
commitment. Do not refuse a drink. Forcing the Chinese to say “no’ will
quickly end relationship. Hong Kong. Hong Kong is 98 % Chinese (Cantonese),
but the people view themselves as different from other Chinese. People there
are highly educated, very motivated and westernized. Punctuality is
respected. Negotiations may be slow and detailed., but very efficient..
Banking contacts are very important. Take time to build relationships.
People are very superstitious – don’t mention failure, poverty or death.
Speaking even a few words of Chinese is greatly appreciated.

Hong Kong
Negotiations may be long, protracted affairs as details are slowly poured and

Conglomeration of Chinese (76%), Malay (15%) and Indian (6%) cultures.
Singaporeans tend to get right down to business in meetings and make
decisions quickly. Singapore has strict regulations which carry stiff
fines, possible jail sentences or even death. You should never do the
following: jaywalk, smoke in public or in air-conditioned buildings (except
country clubs), enter the country with drugs, litter, or import, manufacture,
sell or use chewing gum. Avoid discussing religion or politics.

The people of Taiwan value hard work, patience, friendliness, but they are
hard bargainers – be patient.

The number 4 is considered unlucky, so gifts should not be given in multiples
of four. Giving 7 of an item is considered lucky.

Touching someone on the foot is a taboo; touching someone’s head requires
immediate apology. Kissing in the streets and any public display of affection
are considered rude, though Thais are relatively liberal-minded in matters of
sexuality. Thais hold their king in very high regard. Currency, postage
stamps, magazine covers and other
items with the king’s image are never tossed to the ground, and even
licking the back of a postage stamp iconsidere disrespectful.

Be careful discussing independent movements within Spain, religion and
political issues surrounding fascism and nationalism. Spain is among the most
liberal countries in Europe. The way you present yourself is of critical
importance; trust and personal relationships too. Avoid confrontation –
Spaniards do not like to publicly admit that they are incorrect. You may be
interrupted while you are speaking, this is not an insult, it means the
person is interested in what you are saying. Spaniards do not like to “lose
face”, so they will not necessarily say they do not understand something,
though they are very thorough. They expect both sides to strictly adhere to
the terms of a treaty.

First impressions are important and you will be judged on your clothing and
demeanour. Punctuality is taken extremely seriously and it’s extremely rude
. Austrians are meticulous about details. Avoid confrontational behavior.
Meetings adhere to strict agendas. Communication is formal and follows strict
rules of protocol; no personal relationship, no small talks needed. Austrians
are suspicious of hyperbole, promises that sound too good to be true, or
displays of emotion. Expect a great deal of written communication.

Cultural achievements is Italy’s greatest source of pride. The family is
the most important affiliation in Italy. Maintain eye contact while talking,
otherwise Italians might think you are hiding something. Establish personal
(profitable) relationships with Italians. Italians prefer to do business
with someone they know; they respect power and age. Negotiations usually take
time and patience; don’t rush Italians – they may misinterpret this as
a weakness. At the beginning concentrate on some small talk (Italian
culture, food, wine and soccer. Be sure to offer as much information as
possible for them to take away and analyze. It is common to be interrupted
while speaking or for several people to speak simultaneously. Although
written agendas are frequently provided , they may not be followed – they
serve as a jumping off point .Decisions are often made and agreed to
privately before meetings, which are meant for a free flow of ideas and let
everyone have their say. Decisions that are made and agreed to may never be
implemented, and they are often based on how you are viewed. Hard drinking is
not appreciated – even mild intoxication is considered ill-mannered.
Italians enjoy a lot of good humor. Refrain from asking personal questions.
Whether coming to sightsee or to pray, it is improper to enter a church with
short pants or sleeveless shirts – violators may be denied admission or
asked to leave. When visiting a home in Italy it is impolite to remove
one’s coat until asked. Also, it is customary to ask to enter the home with
“permesso”. Complimenting on food and asking for more is regarded as a
very polite thing to do and every host is expected to prepare food in
abundance. It is also customary, since family lunches last until late in the
afternoon, to ask guests to stay for dinner and help finish all the food. At
a restaurant it’s impolite to ask for a check immediately after the meal
– people expect time to relax and have coffee and after-dinner liquer.

Saudi Arabia
Since Saudis will judge you on appearances, dress and present yourself well.
You should arrive at meetings on time, though it’s an accepted custom to
keep foreigners waiting. Meetings start after prolonged inquiries about
health, family, etc.; never inquire about a Saudi’s wife. Decisions are
made slowly and are easily overturned;, the society is extremely bureaucratic
and most decisions require several layers of approval. Saudis are tough
negotiators, but they avoid to bring bad news. Repeat your main points since
it will be interpreted as meaning you are telling the truth. When discussing
price, Saudis make an initial offer which is extremely low when they are
buying; if they sell, initial offer will be extremely high. You may need to
compromise on a point if someone’s dignity is at stake.

Expect to be offered coffee or tea whenever you meet someone, declining the
offer is viewed as rejecting the person. Egyptians judge people on
appearances, so you must wear good quality conservative clothes. Tough
negotiators. They believe direct eye contact is a sign of honesty, so be
ready for disconcertingly intense stares. Meetings are generally not private
unless there is a need to discuss matters confidentially. Decisions are
reached after great deliberation, the society is extremely bureaucratic. It
is advisable to include older people with impressive titles in your team
since Egyptians respect age and experience. Expect a fair amount of haggling
– Egyptians seldom see an offer as final. They don’t like confrontation
and abhor saying “no”; if they do not respond, it means “no”.

South Africa
South Africans are transactional and do not need to establish long-standing
personal relationships before conducting business. They avoid confrontation
and often use metaphors and sports analogies to demonstrate a point. Personal
relationships are important. Do not interrupt South African while they are
speaking; they strive for consensus and win-win situations. Start
negotiations with realistic figure – they do not like haggling over the

Kosher meal only. No pork. Meat and dairy products cannot be combined. Kosher
meat must be slaughtered by a kosher butcher and prepared in a kosher
kitchen. Most fish, except , is considered kosher. Fresh fruit salad or
non-cooked vegetarian meals are suitable alternatives since all fruits and
vegetables are considered kosher. Kosher foods are marked at food
wholesalers, often with a circled “U” or “K”. Wines should be
from Israel or a kosher vineyard

Proud of their neutrality, have a deep-rooted respect for savings and wealth.
Take punctuality very seriously. They are fair bargainers but not hagglers.

Sweden is a predominantly middle class country with one of the most
far-reaching social security systems in the world. Patriotism is important to
Swedes who are very proud of their nation, towns and regions. Take
punctuality very seriously. Swedes are factual, practical, precise, reserved
and get to the point quickly. Be clear and concise in detailing what you
expect from them. They are tough and slow negotiators. Knowledge about
Sweden’s economy , high standard of living, sports, architecture, history
is appreciated. Do not criticize Swedish lifestyle, sexual habits, suicide
rate, prices.

Generally they dislike aggressive negotiating. It is important to be modest.
Australians would emphasize more on profit than any other objective, so
it’s important to emphasize the importance of economic benefits. Have no
difficulty is saying “no”. It may be impolite to remark on Australia’s
history as penal colony. They enjoy easy-going lifestyle and are generally
friendly and relaxed. The “V” sign is considered to be very vulgar.
Negotiations proceed quickly, bargaining is not customary. They will often
negotiate major issues without over-emphasis on details. Barbecues are
popular. Australians respect people with strong opinions, even if they
don’t agree. Avoid discussions about the treatment of the aboriginal
people. Don’t comment on anyone’s accent – accents often distinguish
social class.

They value loyalty to the family and friends above all else. Indonesia as a
whole is viewed by its people as an extended family with the president,
schoolmasters and leaders of business enterprises referred to as
“fathers” by the public. They love to bargain, and giving concessions too
quickly will be viewed as naivete. Clarification and feedback are a necessity
throughout negotiations. Avoid disagreement and arguments with Indonesians,
do not apply pressure or be confrontational. Civil servants are respected –
be very respectful to government workers. Most Indonesians are Muslims and
consume no liquor or pork.

Hard work, appreciation for culture, strong family systems. Belgians are
known for compromise, negotiation and common sense. Punctuality is vital,
lateness is considered a bad form. Begians like a meeting to be well
structured and focused. Try to show the best sides of your personality during
negotiations.Accept any drink offered by your host and don’t ask for a
drink not offered. Belgians are thrifty and do not appreciate waste –
finish all the food on your plate. Avoid discussing personal matters or
linguistic divisions with them. Do not flaunt wealth. Do not as questions
about private lives.

85% of them hail from Italy, Spain, Austria, France, Germany, Great Britain,
Portugal, so they tend to identify with Europeans. It has been said that
Argentines are a nation of Italians who speak Spanish and think they’re
British living in Paris. The “OK” and “thumbs up” gestures are
considered vulgar. Personal relationships are important and must be developed
before business is done. They often need several meetings and extensive
discussion to make deals. During business meetings, sustain a relaxed manner.
Argentines are tough negotiators, and concessions will not come quickly or
easily. Don’t compare Argentina with the United States or with Brazil,
which is considered rival. Avoid talking about Great Britain or the Falkland
Islands - these are sensitive subjects to many Argentines. Be careful when
discussing the Peron years – people either love or hate the Perons.
Although Argentines may be very vocal about politics and religion, avoid
adding your opinions to these discussions. They do not like publicly
admitting they are incorrect. If a favor is done for you, you will eventually
be called upon to re-pay it. They prefer face-to-face meetings rather than by
telephone or in writing, which are seen as impersonal. Once a relationship
has been developed, their loyalty will be to you rather than to the
government you represent. Start negotiations with small talk. Be alert for
nuances and hidden meanings; it’s a good idea to repeat details as you
understand them to confirm that your colleagues are in agreement. Decisions
are not reached at meetings, which are for discussion and to exchange ideas.
Argentines have a difficult time disagreeing.

Strong sense of fatalism. Social stratifications are well-defined.
Negotiations move slowly – be patient. Take some time for consideration
before agreeing to anything – quick decisiveness is often seen hasty.
Personalize everything: explain how all proposals will benefit Mexico, and,
most important, Mexican personally. The status of your hotel accommodations,
the quality of your clothes and watch, and whether or not you arrive in a
chauffeured limousine will be critically appraised by Mexican counterparts.
Be persistent, don’t give up if your meetings are postponed or canceled; if
you give up, Mexicans might assume that you weren’t serious in the first
place. Any attempt to speak Spanish is appreciated; Mexicans are very proud
of their independence and have a strong sense of national identity and pride.
Never compare the way things are done in Mexico with the way they are done
in USA.

Industrial leader with millions of poor people. Indians prefer to do
business with those they know and prefer to have long-standing personal
relationships prior to negotiations. They are impressed with punctuality.
Indians are very conscious about protocol. They are non-confrontational, but
decision making is slow. It is considered rude to start negotiations right
away – ask about your counterpart’s family, interests, hobbies. Making a
deal is not easy, do be polite, but persistent. “I will try” means
“no”. Never show anger – if you lose your temper , you “lose face”
and prove you are unworthy of trust. Delays are to be expected, especially
dealing with the government. Indians expect concessions and it’s acceptable
to expect concessions in return for those you made. Never appear overly
legalistic during negotiations, in general, Indians do not trust the legal
system. India is a male-dominated society. Many people avoid shaking hands
with individuals of the opposite gender – you have to greet them verbally
and then wait if the other person extends the hand first. It’s
inappropriate for a man to make any comment about a woman’s appearance.
Asking a person to a social event (restaurant) means that the person offering
the invite will be paying for everything. Indians don’t eat beef and many
of them don’t drink alcohol.

Czech Republic.
When visiting a house you are requested to unshoe. Refusing offered
handshake is a very impolite personal insult; handshake must be strong a and
without gestures or movements. If you are a man traveling with a woman, you
must enter a restaurant first and leave last. It is impolite to talk about a
salary during a conversation, even with your close friends.


Chapter 1. Be the best.

1.1 Components of intelligence

1. Biographic intelligence. Biographic intelligence is the study of
politicians, military, scientists and other persons of actual or potential
importance through knowledge of their personalities and backgrounds,
including educational and occupational history, individual accomplishments,
idiosyncrasies and habits, position and power to make decisions.
2. Economic intelligence. Economic intelligence studies the economic
strengths and weaknesses of a country, including source of economic
capability (any means a country has to sustain its economy), manufacturing
(manufacturing processes, facilities, logistics), vulnerabilities (the degree
to which a country’s military would be hampered by the loss of materials or
facilities), economic warfare (information on the diplomatic, financial and
special steps a country may take to induce neutral countries to cease
trading with its enemies).
3. Sociological intelligence. Sociological intelligence deals with people,
customs, behaviors and institutions, including population (rates of increase,
decrease or migrations), social characteristics (customs, values and
beliefs), manpower (divisions and distribution within the workforce), health,
education, welfare and public information (information services within the
4 Transportation and telecommunications intelligence. Transportation and
telecommunications intelligence studies the role of transportation and
telecommunications systems during military emergencies and during peacetime,
including strategic railways, highways, airports, seaports, network of
navigatable rivers and canals, main phone and Internet services providers.
5 Military geographic intelligence. Military geographic intelligence studies
all geographic factors, including terrain, climate, natural resources,
boundaries and population distribution.
6. Armed forces intelligence. Armed forces intelligence is the integrated
study of the land, sea and air forces, including strategy (military
alternatives in terms of position, terrain, economics, politics ), tactics (
military deployments and operations doctrine), location, organizations,
procurement, storage, distribution, weapons and training of the armed forces.
7. Political intelligence. Political intelligence valuates all political
aspects which may affect military operations, including government structure,
national policies, political dynamics (government views and reaction to
events), propaganda (information and disinformation programs), special
services, subversion (subversive acts sponsored by the government).
8. Scientific and technical intelligence. Scientific and technical
intelligence studies the country’s potential and capability to support
objectives through development of weapons and weapons systems, missile and
space programs, nuclear energy and weapons technology, basic applied

1.2 Intelligence cycle.

Equally important to the components of strategic intelligence is an
awareness of the strategic intelligence cycle and the debriefer’s role
within that cycle. The first step is the identification of the intelligence
gaps. Then analysts translate these gaps into intelligence requirements and
strategic debriefer fulfills those requirements. Next step involves
preparation of an intelligence report. The last step is the preparation of an
intelligence report evaluation by the originator of the requirement. These
evaluations measure the quality of the information as well as the quality of
the report writing.

1.3 " Illegal " spies

When I talk about “the best,” I mean the highest intelligence level —
illegal spies, intelligence operatives who are secretly deployed abroad and
covertly operate there under assumed names and well-documented cover stories,
masquerading as native citizens. The process of training and “installing”
such officer is rather complex and includes:

a) Special training. Foreign language, general, political and special
(espionage and counter-espionage) knowledge of the target country; personal
cover story — new biography, special technical devices, recruitment
methods). Up to three years.
b) Illegal probation period abroad. A trip abroad through intermediate
countries with numerous changes of passports and cover stories, jobs,
personal connections. Then he gets to the target country, stays there for
another 1-2 years and goes back to his country for additional training and
correction of cover story — actually, it’s his first combat assignment.
The most important part of this assignment is to check the reliability of the
cover story and documents; the cover story has to be reinforced with new and
old true facts, like short-term studies at universities or professional
training courses).
c) Intermediate legislation. On his way back the officer could stay in an
intermediate country for another 1-2 years, make contacts with business,
scientists, government employees, celebrities.
d) Basic legislation. Officer comes to the target country, obtains genuine
documents, gets a job which allows him to travel and talk to many people,
recruit informants thus creating an illegal station.

The illegal is usually supplied with a variety of cover documents to make him
“invisible” for counter-intelligence — some are used only to cross the
borders on the way to a target country, others — to live there, other
documents — only for travel to “third countries” to meet with officers
of legal or illegal stations or to be used in case of urgent recall to home
country (in that case the illegal is supposed to transit at least two or
three countries). His further activity depends on how professional
counter-espionage service is working in the country.
He could fail in his mission also because of:
- poor training and low quality documents
- neglecting security rules.
- one mistake in pronunciation can give you away
- treason (traitor-informant or a “mole” inside his own service)
- low personal security level (while working with sources)

1.4 "Golden" rules

1. No mercy, no ideology, no emotions.
2. Intuition is nothing but the ability to watch and analyze.
3. No evidence is evidence in itself.
4. Distrust is a mother of security.
5. Never look as if you are sizing up the person — that’s a sign that
gives away cops and spies.
6. Don’t start first if you don’t know the rules.
7. The way you act is the way you think — behavior is a system of codes
(information) which could be calculated by the enemy. Watch your face —
that’s a shop window.
8. Think fast, talk slow.
9. Avoid self-programming and never think bad about yourself.
10. Don’t smoke, drink or take drugs if it’s not necessary; spare your
stomach from very hot or cold food or drinks; avoid too much noise and light.
11. Don’t be shy to lie — the more you lie the more people respect you.
12. Let people talk out and “empty their brains” — then load your
13. People never change — everybody wants to get pleasure and avoid pain.
14. “He knew too much” means “He talked too much.”
15. Never ask extra questions — wait. Wait and the object will get used to
you and open himself — nobody can stay tense for long.
16. Lonely people live longer in espionage business.
17. “No exit” situation is the one you don’t like or don’t
18. Avoid:
- personal enemies (they fix negative information on you)
- silent types (they notice and think too much)
- other professionals (they’ll blow your identity)
- extra stress (it damages your heart and blood vessels and that kills your
brain and your ability to think )
- talking too much

1.5 CIA or KGB ?


Cuts corners to save money on intelligence.
No limitations.
Poor professional training and knowledge.
KGB was famous for brilliant analysts.
“Country inside country.”
Mostly patriots.
Results first. Use people and get rid of them.
Security first. Respect your sources.
Promise and forget.
Promise and do it.
Saw Russia as #1 enemy.
Saw US as #1 enemy.
Money first.
Job first.
“We are the best.”
"No, we are the best".
A fluid structure.


Since 1991, the KGB has been re-named the SVR (Russian Intelligence Service),
but it has basically the same structure.

KGB Chief and his Deputies
“R” — operational planning and analysis
“K”: external counter-intelligence
“S”: illegal spies
“T”: scientific and technical intelligence, acquisition of Western
strategic, military and industrial technology.
“RI”: intelligence assessment
“RT”: operations within the Soviet Union
“OT”: operational technical support
“I”: computer services
“P”: political intelligence
Geographic Departments.
“A”: disinformation, covert actions to influence foreign nations and
“R”: radio communications with overseas stations
“A” of the 8th Chief Directorate (cryptographic services)
KGB station abroad:
KGB Resident (Chief of the station).
“PR” line: political, economic and military strategic intelligence
“KR” line: counterintelligence and security
“X” line: scientific and technological intelligence
“N” line: illegal spies’ support
“EM” line: émigrés
“SK” line: Soviet colony in the country
Embassy security officer
“OT” officer — operational technical support
“Impulse” station — monitoring of radio communications of surveillance
“RP” line officer: SIGINT
“I” line officer — computers
Cipher clerk
Radio operator

KGB inside humor:
“Recruit a woman if you can’t recruit anybody else.”
“You can lose nothing and you can find nothing inside the KGB.”
“Never make friends inside the KGB.”
“Before lunch we fight hunger, after lunch we fight sleep.”
“The law stops here.”

KGB slang sounds funny too: “music” (listening device), “Bible”(a
book with listening device hidden inside), “gods”(officers who worked
with informants inside churches and sects), “sailor” (informant —
informant’s KGB registration card was crossed by a red stripe), “crust”
(KGB ID), “To take a skin off” (to take information from the informant),
“to spin information” (to “enrich” information with false facts),
“lime-tree” false information). There are still stereotypes about the
KGB, like “KGB knows everything” or “KGB never arrests innocent
citizens,” or “KGB officers take special pills and that’s why they are
never drunk.” Yes, KGB officers drink vodka on weekends and sometimes in
the offices with regular Russian appetizers like smoked sausage or fish,
caviar and pickles, but it’s a rare thing to see somebody really drunk.
They drink mostly to ease tension from the job and social isolation. If you
don’t drink alcohol with your colleagues it means disrespect and is not
very good for your promotion. They take no pills and are just accustomed to
regulate themselves.

The KGB business goes in cycles and it’s like any other bureaucratic
government agency — July and August are “dead” months (vacations) as
well as November and December (planning and waiting for promotion). The crazy
busy months are January, February, March and June, because the departments
and divisions chiefs try to do most of the job (especially recruitment) that
was planned for the whole year. If you still don’t do anything it’s not a
problem but if you miss the recruitment targets, you are in trouble. First,
it’s not professional and even your friends won’t understand; second,
it’s a problem now for somebody else, because if you haven’t met the
recruitment target somebody has to recruit instead of you — and in a rush.
KGB officers, due to professional demands, are physically fit, intelligent,
well educated, have no mental problems and know how to talk and charm people
— that’s the art of recruitment. All these qualities create a big problem
for married men (99% are married) because women like them. Almost every
officer has a lover, but divorce is out of question. First, it’s bad for
your career, second, you and your bosses have a terrible headache, because if
you divorce and want to marry again, they have to check this woman — she
must have “clean” biography: no criminals in the family, no relatives
abroad, no mentally ill family members and she has to be normal too. In
earlier years, every KGB officer was a CPSU (Communist Party of the Soviet
Union) member and there were no political problems between the Party leaders
and KGB chiefs. Still, there existed a super-secret Special Investigation
Department in Moscow which was responsible for investigation of espionage or
other criminal activity by senior Party members or government officials.

1.5.2 What we learn from KGB practice:

1) KGB intelligence never tries to save money on agents, especially those
recruited or planted inside foreign government bureaucracies and special
services. This rule explains how KGB got the American nuclear bomb.
2) KGB tries to get its agents out of jail no matter what, unlike the CIA
which treats such agents as “disposable.”
3) The KGB practiced forcible confinement of dissidents in psychiatric
hospitals, where debilitating drugs were administered (as an alternative to
straightforward arrests and to avoid the unfavorable publicity that often
arose with criminal trials).
4) Censorship of literature, media and art in general.
5) KGB mounted professional “active-measures” operations using forged US
Government documents, pictures, evidences, stories, rumors and other
“official” sources and media campaigns abroad to discredit all aspects of
American policy and promote conflicts between the United States and its NATO
allies and other states. No doubt the other top international agencies have
similar operations throughout the world.
The political effect of this type of operations can be very strong.
American biological warfare was blamed for AIDS — it was “manufactured
during genetic engineering experiments at Fort Detrick, Maryland.” This
information was “pushed” in 1986 through a retired East German,
Russian-born biophysicist, professor Jacob Segal, who gave an interview to
the British Sunday Express. He insisted that this extremely dangerous virus
had been synthesized from two natural viruses, VISNA and HTLV-1. In the first
six months of 1987 alone the story received major coverage in over forty
third-world countries, and on German and British TV. Africa still believes
the story.
Another example is a widespread story that the United States is developing
“ethnic-specific weapons” that would kill “nonwhites only.” Some
people think SARS and Ebola are among the results, and wonder what the Bird
Flu is all about. Or — how about the “baby parts” story widely
published in over 50 countries in which Americans were blamed for butchering
Latin American children and using their bodies for organ transplants. And
finally there is a widespread belief among American blacks that the CIA
introduced them to crack cocaine to “slow down the civil rights
movement.” Some people wonder as well who was pushing marijuana and
hallucinogenic drugs, free sex, wife-swapping, and a variety of other
“trends” that tore the social fabric in the United States in the 1960s, a
tear that has never been mended? Any of the top intelligence services could
have a role in encouraging developments which weaken America; or which
distract and deflect the energies of restless students, intellectuals, the
media and others who might criticize the war.
6) Every KGB officer is an analyst, unlike CIA employees.
7) KGB intelligence (SVR) always pursues global goals, which are currently:
- to block NATO’s expansion
- to block US hegemony
- to expand Russia’s weapons market
- to continue high-tech, military and space technology espionage. (Before,
the KGB was involved in the support of “national liberation wars” in the
Third World, providing arms, advisers, military training and political
indoctrination of leftist guerrillas.) In 1992 Russia signed an agreement on
intelligence cooperation with China which is a direct threat to US national

There are two more important special services — FAPSI (Federal Agency for
Government Communications and Information) and the Presidential Security
Service. FAPSI is a target for us because its in charge of a special
switchboard which includes coded telephone communications by Russian
President, the prime minister and their assistants. FAPSI is also empowered
to monitor and register all electronic financial and securities transactions
and to monitor other electronic communications, including private Internet


GESTAPO, secret state political police with unquestionable powers to arrest
opponents of the Nazi regime, including Communists, liberals, Freemasons,
Protestants, Jehovah Witnesses, Jews. It was responsible for
counter-espionage and counter-sabotage.

1.6.1 The Gestapo structure:
Referat N: Central Intelligence Office.
Department A (Enemies: Communists (A1), Countersabotage (A2), Reactionaries
and Liberals (A3), Assassinations (A4)
Department B (Sects and Churches : Catholics (B1), Protestants (B2),
Freemasons (B3), Jews (B4)
Department C (Administration and Party Affairs). The central administrative
office of the Gestapo, responsible for card files of all personnel.
Department D (Occupied Territories : Opponents of the Regime (D1), Churches
and Sects (D2), Records and Party Matters (D3), Western Territories (D4),
Counter-espionage (D5).
Department E (Counterintelligence: In the Reich (E1), Policy Formation (E2),
In the West (E3), In Scandinavia (E4), In the East (E5), In the South (E6).

The local offices of the Gestapo were known as Staatspolizeistellen and
Staatspolizeileistellen; they answered to a local commander known as the
Inspecteur der Sicherheitspolizei und des SD (“inspector of the security
police and security services”) who , in turn, was under the dual command of
Referat N of the Gestapo and also his local SS and police leader. The Gestapo
also maintained offices at all Nazi concentration camps, held an office on
the staff of the SS and police leaders, and supplied personnel on an
as-needed basis to such formations as the Einsatzgruppen. Such personnel,
assigned to these auxiliary duties, was typically removed from the Gestapo
chain of command and fell under the authority of other branches of the SS.

1.6.2 What we learn from Gestapo practices:

1. Investigated and fought against all activities which might endanger in any
sense the security of Germany.
2. Kept operations simple and effective. Take for example the “public
places total control” method: agents were recruited, first of all, at every
big restaurant, bar, hotel or store. They delivered information on any client
whose behavior was somewhat different from the general one: he was too
excited or too depressed, too greedy or too generous, too open or too closed,
too well dressed or vise versa, etc. And very often such a client deserved
special attention.
3. Aggressive total recruitment — by the end of World War II there wasn’t
a single guerilla detachment, resistance or espionage group on occupied
Soviet and European territories that had not been in part or completely
eliminated by the GESTAPO or SD — 100 per cent professional
counter-terrorist and counter-espionage job based on agent infiltration
4. The “Night and Fog” operation. By 1941 the RSHA analysts reported that
the “taking hostages” practice was not effective any more as resistance
on the occupied territories was even increasing after that went into effect.
It was decided that resistance fighters had to be secretly arrested and
secretly transported to Germany where, after investigation, they just
vanished without a trace. The US in recent years has been taking insurgents
and others arrested (often on suspicion alone) in Afghanistan, Iraq, and
around the world, and transferring them via secret flights to secret jails in
Eastern Europe and elsewhere for “interrogation”. One might have
predicted that the public outcry would quickly stamp out any such abomination
as the prison at Guantanamo, but as we see the “current incivilities”
have already gone on longer than World War II and the camp is still there.
5. The Gestapo was abhorred for using “third degree” methods of
interrogation (see “Special Influence”)
6 .The Gestapo had the power of the “protective custody”, a euphemism for
the power to imprison people without judicial proceedings, typically in
concentration camps. The person imprisoned even had to sign his or her own
order declaring that the person had requested imprisonment (ostensibly out of
fear of personal harm) – the signature was forced by tortures. People were
sent to concentration camps if they, according to the Gestapo opinion, had
received too little punishment. It was not only left-wing politicians and
trade union activists who were sent to concentration camps. (The Gestapo also
arrested beggars, prostitutes, homosexuals, alcoholics, drug addicts and
anyone who was incapable to work).
Besides, the Gestapo, actually, copied the KGB (NKVD) very effective
structure and experience; they even coordinated joint actions. In March 1940
representatives of NKVD and Gestapo met for one week in Zakopane, Poland to
“pacificate” resistance in this country. Then the Soviet Union delivered
hundreds of German and Austrian communists to Gestapo, as unwanted foregners,
with relevant documents.
7. British and Americans did not want to deal with anti-Nazi. First, it was
due to the aftermath of the Venlo incident of 1939, when Gestapo agents
posing as anti-Nazis in the Nethrlands kidnapped two British Secret
Intelligence Service (SIS) officers lured to a meeting to discuss peace
terms. That prompted Winston Churchill to ban any further contact with the
German opposition. In addition, the allies did not want to contact anti-Nazis
because they feared that Soviet dictator Stalin would believe they were
attempting to make deals behind his back.

1.7 CIA


Director of the Central Intelligence Agency
Deputy Director Associate Deputy Director
Associate Director for Military Support (the DCI principal advisor and
representative on military issues.He coordinates Intelligence Community
efforts to provide Joint Force commanders with timely, accurate intelligence;
also supports Department of Defense officials who oversee military
intelligence training and acquisition of intelligence systems and technology.
A senior general officer, he ensures coordination of Intelligence Community
policies, plans and requirements relating to support to military forces in
the intelligence budget ).
National Intelligence Council
Office of Congressional Affairs
Center for the Study of Intelligence


Directorate of Administration
Directorate of Intelligence Offices:
President’s Support Division, Operations Center, DCI Crime and Narcotics
Center, DCI Nonproliferation Center, Collection Requirements and Evaluation
Staff, Office of Advanced Analytic Tools, Office of Transitional Issues,
Council of Intelligence Operations, Office of Support Services
Geographic Offices
Offices of Advanced Projects, Development and Engineering, Research and
Development, Clandestine Information Technology Office, Technical Collection,
Technical Service, Community Open Source Program, Foreign Broadcast
National Clandestine Service (Planning and carrying out covert
destabilization operations, dissemination of propaganda, paramilitary
operations, coordination between agencies)
Directorate of Plans
Counterintelligence Center
DCI Counterterrorist Center
National HUMINT (human intelligence) requirements center
Communications, Facilities and Security Services, Finance and Logistics,
Information Technology, Medical Services, Human Resources Management,
Personnel Security, Training and Education, DCI Center for Security
Evaluation, Center for Support Coordination

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was created by the National Security
Act of 1947 to gather and analyze information from every corner of the globe
and to provide the President with a covert operations capability. The CIA
inherited the functions of the Office of Strategic Services (OSS).
It’s supposed to:
- correlate and evaluate intelligence relating to national security and
provide for its appropriate dissemination
- collect, produce and disseminate foreign intelligence and
counterintelligence (which if collected within the United States must be
coordinated with the FBI)
- mcollect, produce and disseminate intelligence on foreign aspects of
narcotics production and trafficking
- conduct counterintelligence activities outside the United States and,
without assuming or performing any internal security functions, conduct
counterintelligence activities within the United States in coordination with
the FBI
- conduct special activities approved by the President

Since 1947 the CIA has been on forward-march and has advanced inexorably.
Right after World war II , the CIA protected high profile Nazi war criminals,
including Adolf Eicman; recruited tens of thousands of Nazis, many of whom
were later sent to aid in operations in South America.
Some outstanding CIA failures:
- failure to predict the June 1950 North Korea invasion of the South Korea
- failure to predict the “Fall of Czechoslovakia”
- failure to foresee “Tito’s defection” from Moscow
- failure to predict the “Fall of Chinese Nationalists”
- failure to foresee the Israeli victory in Palestine
- failure to judge the mood of the Latin American states at the Bogota
Conference in 1948
CIA with the help of Mafia assasins pursued a series of plots to poison or
shoot Fidel Castro according to the assassination plots proposed by Colonel
Sheffield Edwards, Director of the CIA Office of Security.
Prior to the 1962 Cuban crisis, the CIA reported to President Kennedy that
the USSR wouldn’t risk a nuclear war. During the crisis they insisted that
the USSR might risk nuclear war. In both cases their National Intelligence
Estimate was grossly off-base.
The CIA supported the Ba’ah Party coup d’etat against the government of
Rahman Arif, with Saddam Hussein eventually assuming power.
The Reagan transition team for the CIA (November, 1980) reported the
“The fundamental problem confronting American security is the current
dangerous condition of the Central Intelligence Agency and of national
intelligence collection generally. The failure of American intelligence
collection has been at the heart of faulty defense planning and misdirected
foreign policy.”
The team pointed out to the following intelligence failures:
- the general and continuing failure to predict the actual size and scope of
the Soviet military effort and military sector of the Russian GNP
- the consistent gross misstatement of Soviet global objectives
- the wholesale failure to understand or attempt to counteract Soviet
disinformation and propaganda
- the general failure to explain the characteristics of Soviet conventional
weapon systems and vessels — for example the new Russian guided missile
- the wholesale failure to understand and predict the nature of the so-called
wars of national liberation in Africa and Central and South America
- the consistent miscalculation regarding the effect of and general apology
for massive technology transfer from West to the East
- the apparent internal failure of counterintelligence generally.
The team went on to observe.“The unhealthy symbiosis between the CIA and
the Department of State is the chief underlying cause of the security
position of the United States. The next Director of the Central Intelligence
Agency … will be told repeatedly by virtually everyone in policy positions
at the Agency that the CIA is a highly professional, non-political agency
that produces ‘objective’ intelligence. Those assertions are arrant
nonsense. In part out of mutual drive for individual and corporate
self-preservation, the CIA has become an elitist organization which engenders
unshakable loyalty among its staff. The National Intelligence Estimate
process is itself a bureaucratic game. These failures are of such enormity,
that they cannot help but suggest to any objective observer that the agency
itself is compromised to an unprecedented extent and that its paralysis is
attributable to causes more sinister than incompetence.”
The CIA appears to have failed completely to predict the Soviet empire
collapse and the end of the Cold War as such. Robert Gates, the fifteenth CIA
Director (and later George W.’s Defense Secretary), as much as said in his
acceptance speech on November 12, 1991 that the CIA is a mafia: “The people
at Langley were more than a team; they were a family. I hope this sense of
family, with all that implies, can be strengthened in the time ahead.”
CIA orchestrated a bomb-and-sabotage campaign against civilian and government
targets in Baghdad .The civilian targets included, at least, one school
bus,killing schoolchildren; a cinema, killing many people. The campaign was
directed by the CIA agent Dr. Iad Allawi, later installed as prime minister
by the U.S.-led coalition after the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003.
The House Permanent Select Committee om Intelligence issued a congressional
report estimating that the clandestine service part of the intelligence
community “easily” breaks “extremely serious laws” in countries
around the world, 100,000 tiemes every year.
In 1996 the San Jose Mercury News wrote about the use of CIA aircraft, which
had ferried arms to the Contras, to ship cocaine to the United States during
the return flights. It was revealed also that Central America narcotics
traffickers could import cocaine to the U.S. cities in the 1980’s without
the interference of normal law enforcement agencies; this led to the crack
cocaine epidemic, especially in poor neighborhoods of Las Angeles, and CIA
intervened to prevent the prosecution of drug dealers who were helping to
fund the Contras. After that the CIA Inspector General Hitz was assigned to
investigate these allegations. In 1998 the DCI George Tenet declared that he
was releasing the report, which showed that the “CIA did not
‘expeditiously’ cut off relations with alleged drug traffickers” and
the “CIA was aware of allegations that ‘dozens of people and a number of
companies connected in some fashion to the contras program’ were involved
in drug trafficking”.
The Kerry Committee report also found the the U.S. State Department had paid
drug ttraffickers (!).
The US lost 3,000 lives at Pearl Harbor in 1941 because someone was
instructed not to pay attention to certain intelligence information that was
available. Who was managing the intelligence and deciding where to look
closer and where to turn a blind eye on September 11, when another 3,000
American lives were lost?
Arrest warrants for 22 CIA agents were issued within the European Union. The
agents are alledged to have taken an Egyptian,Hassan Mustafa Osama Nasr, a
suspected terrorist, from Milan on February 17,2003 for extraordinary
rendition to Egypt, where he was tortured.
German Khalid El-Masri filed a lawsuit against former CIA Direrctor George
Tenet, claiming that he was transported from Macedonia to a prison in
Afghanistan and held captive there by the CIA for 5 months on a case of
mistaken identity.

What We Learn from CIA Practice
Nothing positive.

1. The CIA’s history up to today is a history of paralysis.
The grand problem is — our government can’t preemptively handle foreign
policy and national security matters because it has no adequate intelligence
information; in fact it has no idea (neither has the CIA) what such high
level political intelligence information would be.
Yes, I’m talking here about the Senate Intelligence Committee which has
primary oversight responsibility for the CIA in Congress. Ask the National
Security Agency to start intercepting world leaders’ talks and phone calls
worldwide — if we are spending this much money on NSA special intelligence,
we ought to be able to intercept the calls and break the coded
communications. This information would have to be the essence of the US
President’s Daily Briefings and this information has to be the base of
National Intelligence Daily Report and National Intelligence Estimate —
which is a regular failure of the CIA — many presidents ignore these
reports as trash. This information would have to be the basis of National
Security Council decisions. Sorry, we don’t have a global US intelligence
strategy or intelligence strategists and I’m not going to do the job while
16,000 “good ol’ boys” drink the day away at Langley.
2. I strongly recommend to stop the CIA’s secret funding right now, funding
that is not made public or audited by the Congress. The CIA has its own
budget but they want more, which they will waste, and some so-called
“operations” are financed by secret transfers of funds from the
appropriations accounts of other agencies, primarily the Defense Department.
3. You can’t reform the CIA — they are too accustomed to a comfortable
existence, uncontrolled and irresponsible, because they, unlike military
intelligence, do not function according to discipline, strict and
understandable orders and patriotism.

The CIA has to be shut down, and its political intelligence functions and
funding have to be transferred to the Defense Intelligence Agency. Platitudes
like “the transition period is complex and takes time” are not convincing
— military personnel should take over the Langley headquarters with not a
single CIA employee (and all the inevitable “moles”) within a week and
start cleaning up the so-called top-secret papers and files, 90% of which is
“information noise.” While the CIA is a “family” ruled by the
so-called “four princes” (heads of four directorates), the Army is a
brotherhood of patriots whose leader is the US President, the
Commander-in-Chief. He can trust them — show me a single American (or
anyone else) who trusts the CIA.

One of my attempts to reform CIA started with
application for CIA Director position in 2002.



Applicant’s name: Mr. Mykhaylo Ivanovich Kryzhanovsky
Social Security Number: _________________________________________________
Desired Position
Departrment/Agency/Commission: Central Intelligence Agency
Position/Area: __________________________________________________________
Specific Position (If Known): Director of Central Intelligence Agency
Signature Print Name
Return to: Or contact us
Presidential Personnel Office Telephone: (202)456-9713
The White House Fax: (202)456-1121
Washington, DC 20500


The Israeli MOSSAD (Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks), formed in
1951, has responsibility for human intelligence collection, covert action and
counterterrorism with the focus on Arab nations and organizations throughout
the world.

MOSSAD Structure
Collection Department: espionage operations
Political Action and Liaison Department: political activities and liaison
with friendly foreign intelligence services and with nations with which
Israel does not have normal diplomatic relations —who is responsible for
Israel’s image, which is extremely low on the international arena? What
these people are doing over there? Drinking kosher vodka?
LAP Department: psychological warfare, propaganda and deception operations. I
have the same question for this department.
Research Department: intelligence production, including daily situations
reports, weekly summaries and detailed monthly reports, weekly summaries and
detailed monthly reports.
15 geographic sections.
Special Operations Division: assassination, sabotage, paramilitary and
psychological warfare projects
Technology Department: development of advanced technologies to support

1.8.1 What we learn from MOSSAD practice:
1. Very effective method of non-stop 24/7 monitoring of all Arab terrorists
leaders’ movements all over the world. Don’t you think they know where
Osama Bin-Laden is? — if MOSSAD had informants among his aides before, it
has them now.
2. Unlimited practice of political murders — which means MOSSAD has no idea
how to recruit and work with Arab agents (monitoring is a passive tool).
3. MOSSAD has been super-active at the United Nations, with zero effect —
99% of the UN delegates vote against Israel on every issue.

My Israeli colleagues have some unfortunate qualities: they promote an
unprecedented level of PR according to which every MOSSAD officer is a genius
and each MOSSAD Director is “Mr. Intelligence.” MOSSAD unfortunately
soiled its reputation in the international espionage community after the case
of the exceptionally unprofessional John Pollard. The following morality tale
emphasizes the first rule of recruitment — do not recruit psychos.
John Pollard was born in 1954 in Texas to a Jewish family. He studied at
Stanford University and being a schizophrenic and drug abuser, claimed he was
a colonel in the Israeli army and a MOSSAD spy. After Stanford the US Navy
hired him in 1979 as a civilian intelligence analyst at Naval Operational
Surveillance and Intelligence Center, the Naval Intelligence Support Center
and the Naval Investigative Center.In 1984 they brought him into the
Anti-Terrorism Alert Center where he gained access to the whole federal
intelligence system and a high level of clearance known as SCI or Sensitive
Compartmented Information, and a special “courier card” that opened the
CIA, FBI, State Department and National Security Agency restricted archives
for him.
In May 1984, through a New York businessman, he was introduced to Israeli
Air Force colonel Aviem Sella. Pollard told him that he had positive proof
that the USA, the only Israel’s ally, friend and sponsor, was not sharing
all the intelligence data it should with Israel, and Pollard was angry with
the US and willing to help his historic motherland. (In truth, although
Israel does not share much with the US, Israel was receiving full political,
economic and military support from the US plus $3 billion a year at that time
— and even more in recent years.) The report about the “walk-in”
volunteer was passed to Rafi Eitan, the LACAM (Israeli military technology
espionage agency) chief, and in a month Pollard was recruited. For a year
Pollard was supplying Israel with top secret documents, including satellite
reconnaissance photographs which were of a special interest to LACAM. The
documents were going straight to Prime Minister Shimon Pres, Foreign Minister
Yitzhak Shamir and Defense Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
Finally on November 21, 1985 the FBI went after him. In a chase, he made it
into the Israeli embassy in Washington, DC, but the MOSSAD officers threw him
out. He may spend the rest of his life in jail. So far President George Bush
and President Bill Clinton have refused the multiple Israeli requests to
pardon him.

Since 2000 MOSSAD has advertised its recruitment of collection officers (a
concept which is unthinkable for the KGB).

1.9 Ministry of State Security (MSS), China.

China’s MSS aggressively targets the US high tech sector heavily
concentrated in Silicon Valley. Cover for Beijing’s espionage includes the
1,500 Chinese diplomats, 15,000 Chinese students who arrive here each year
and 2, 700 visiting delegations each year and the US correspondents of the
major Chinese newspapers, including The People’s Daily and Xinhua News
Agency. (Altogether the MSS has established “branches” in 170 cities in
nearly 50 countries all over the world). Here what communist China is doing
in the United States.
1998 was a very special year. We got 4 (four) cases of suspected Chinese
espionage against the United States dating back to the 1980s. The most
serious case involved China’s alleged acquisition of key information about
our nation’s most advanced miniaturized US nuclear warhead, the W-88, as
well as serious security breaches at the Department of Energy (DOE) Los
Alamos Laboratory between 1984 and 1988. In 1997 Dr. Peter Lee, who worked
in Los Alamos on classified projects relating to the use of lasers to
stimulate nuclear detonations, was convicted for passing classified national
defense information to China’s representatives. In 1999, FBI arrested Wen
Lee, a Taiwan-born Chinese American scientist, who downloaded critical
nuclear weapons codes, called legacy codes, from a classified computer system
at Los Alamos to an unclassified system accessible to anyone with the proper
password. Same year the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board
presented a report saying that DOE “is a dysfunctional bureaucracy that
has proven it is incapable of reforming itself”.
China is striving to acquire advanced American technology of any sort,
whether for military or civilian purposes, as part of its government program
to improve its entire economic infrastructure – a direct threat to our
national security. They are mostly interested in astronautics, information
technology, laser technology, automation technology, energy technology, new
materials. Watch, if you have to deal with China Aerospace Corporation (CASC)
and its Hong Kong subsidiary China Aerospace International Holdings, China
National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC), China North Industries Group (NORINCO),
Aviation Industries Corporation of China (AVIC), China Nanchang Aircraft
Manufacturing Company, China National South Aero-Engine and Machinery
Company, Qinghua University Nuclear Research Institute, China International
Trade and Investment Company (CITIC), Polytechnologies Corporation, China
Great Wall Industry Corporation, China State Shipbuilding Corporation (CSSC),
China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO).

China is trying to steal from us information in the following areas of
military concern:
1. Biological warfare. Gene researches (bioengineering) that could have
biological warfare application.
2. Space technology. Satellites with remote sensing capabilities, which could
be used for military reconnaissance, as well as space launch vehicles.
3. Military information technology. Intelligent computers, optoelectronics,
image processing for weather forecasting; the production of submicron
integrated circuits on 8-inch silicon wafers. These programs could lead to
the development of military communications systems; command, control
communications and intelligence systems; advances in military software
4. Laser weapons. Pulse-power techniques, plasma technology and laser
spectroscopy, all of which are useful in the development of laser weapons.
5. Automation technology. Computer-integrated manufacturing systems and
robotics. Electronics, machinery, space, chemistry, telecommunications.
6. Nuclear weapons.
7. Exotic materials. Optoelectronic information materials, structural
materials, special function materials, composites, rare-earth metals, new
energy compound materials that could advance the development of military

The primary professional China’s intelligence services, involved in
military technology espionage are the Ministry of State Security (MSS) and
the PLA General Staff’s Military Intelligence Department (MID). The MSS
relies on a network of non-professional individuals and organizations acting
outside the direct control of the intelligence services, including scientific
delegations and China nationals working abroad.

China also adopted a three-track approach to acquiring US equipment and
-the diversion of parts or tools from commercial end uses
-direct purchase
-joint ventures

1.9.1 Traitor Bill Clinton.

In 1996 , Sunbase Asia, Incorporated purchased Southwest Products
Corporation, A California producer of ball bearings for US military aircraft.
Sunbase is incorporated in the United States, but is owned by an investment
group comprised of some of the PRC’s largest state-owned conglomerates as
well as a Hong Kong company. According to a Southwest executive, the purchase
will “take (Sunbase) to the next” level of technology. The Clinton
administration determined that additional information on this transaction
could not be made public without affecting national security (?!).
In 1997, China Ocean Shipping Company (COSCO), the PRC’s state-owned
shipping company which operates under the direction of the Ministry of
Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation and answers to the PRC State Council,
attempted to lease port space that was being vacated by the US Navy in Long
Beach, California. The lease proposal led to a heated debate between
Congress, which wanted to prevent the lease based on national security
concerns, and President Clinton, who supported the lease. Legislation passed
by both houses of Congress barred the lease and voided the President’s
authority to grant a waiver.
A year earlier US Customs confiscated over 2,000 assault rifles AK-47 that
were being smuggled into the United States aboard COSCO ships. The Clinton
administration determined that additional information concerning COSCO could
not be made public without affecting national security (?!). The House Select
Committee on U.S. National Security and Military/Commercial Concerns with the
People’s Republic of China (Cox Committee) received evidence of PRC theft
of technology data from US industry during the 1990s valued at millions of
dollars. China used Chinese nationals for that purpose. The Clinton
administration has determined that no details of this evidence may be made
public without affecting national security.

Chinese intelligence targets the US high-tech sector, but what is much more
important is China’s strategy to bribe the President, Senators and
Representatives by discreetly financing, through intermediaries, federal and
state elections. In such a way China is getting favorable American treatment
on trade policy, including selling nuclear weapons and technology to such
countries as Iran and Libya. In 1991 the National Security Agency intercepted
communications indicating that China was trying to “influence” 30
Congressional candidates (mostly Democrats) through campaign contributions.
Republican House Speaker Newt Gingrich was one of those candidates. According
to James F. Lilley, a former US Ambassador to China: “The FBI discovered
Chinese efforts to interfere in American campaigns as early as 1991 and
warned a number of Democratic members of Congress to watch for Chinese
donations passed through intermediaries…It’s the way they operate in
Asian countries. They do it by bribing government officials; they bribe them
to change policy.” Senator Fred Thompson, who chaired the 1997 campaign
finance hearings, said that “High-level Chinese government officials
crafted a plan to increase China’s influence over the US political process,
and took specific steps to do so, including the allocation of substantial
sums of money to influence federal and state elections.”
Secret services always conduct detailed research before they “do” a
certain person, and in Bill Clinton they found one who was a ripe target.
China recruited Johnny Chung, a democratic fundraiser, who got $100,000 from
another agent, Liu Chaoying (who worked on defense modernization for China
People’s Liberation Army), and gave the money to Democratic National
Committee. Then, by the order of Chung’s boss, general Ji Shengde, $300,000
were deposited into the Torrance businessman’s account to subsidize
campaign donations intended for Clinton. Another $500,000 were “donated”
to an international trading firm, established by a former Clinton’s aide.
Then Chung escorted the wife and son of Chinese military intelligence to a
political fundraiser in Los Angeles in 1996, at which Democratic officials
asked for a $25,000 contribution for the opportunity to introduce his
“friends” to Bill Clinton. And then Clinton overrode then-Secretary of
State Warren Christopherson’s decision to limit China’s ability to launch
American-made satellites on Chinese rockets. Later Bernard Schwartz, the
“Loral” CEO and the largest individual contributor to the DNC, appeared
on the stage. What happened? I don’t know what happened in 1996, but in
1998 the US federal grand jury was investigating whether “Loral”
illegally gave China space expertise that significantly advanced Beijing’s
ballistic missile program. Schwartz was ready to export to China airborne
reconnaissance cameras, weapon delivery systems, and target acquisition and
missile guidance systems. Clinton “shut up” the federal grand jury by
approving the “Loral” deal. Bravo, China!

1.10 Federal Intelligence Service (BND), Germany
Like the KGB, the German BND chose total global espionage as its basic
strategy. This means strong government support, perfect semi-classified
financing. It means Germany wants to dominate not only in Europe but
worldwide — a very dangerous tendency if you think about the past. I once
met a BND officer under cover as an engineer in Ukraine; we had beer and
vodka and he talked to me pretty straight about Ukraine and its
post-Chernobyl radioactive future. He informed me about a super-secret deal
Ukrainian President Kravchuk signed with Germany, allowing the transfer of
German radioactive waste to Ukraine). The BND is very sensitive to
international illegal weapons, radioactive materials and the drugs trade.

1.11 General Directorate for External Security (DGSE), France
French security officials, like those of other countries, are suspicious of
foreigners and have perhaps less mercy and respect for their colleagues and
for quarries from other countries. In the USA they are very aggressive in
high-tech and industrial espionage.

1.12 Secret Intelligence Service (MI6, “The Firm”), Great Britain
Thank God, our British friends don’t seem to be focusing on us — but who
knows? Right now they are too busy working against Germany (industrial and
military secrets) and France (military technology). God bless them.

Chapter 2. Special Influence

1. Tortures

Torture is a category of methods of interrogation designed to shock, hurt and
humiliate the object and get information or to make him do something (if used
for blackmail). Points to remember:
-ongoing torture decreases pain sensitivity
-people with strong will power take torture as a test
-resistance to torture is often a form of hysterics after arrest
-the object could take himself as a martyr if you torture him too much
-torture could damage object’s psyche and you won’t be able to work with
him (that’s why we keep terrorists in Guantanamo Bay without trial – we
turn them into idiots)
-people usually trust “after torture information” more than voluntary
-there are different types of torture and professionals often combine them

Techniques of psychological torture include:
- fake execution
- complete isolation (“wall therapy”)
- daylight deprivation
- forcible narcotics addiction. Here you can use depressants, stimulants,
opiates or hallucinogens (psychodelics): depressants (alcohol, barbiturates,
antianxiety drugs
with effects of euphoria, tension reduction, disinhibition, muscle
relaxation, drowsiness; stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine
(crystal meth), with effects of fast
- euphoria, exhilaration, high physical and mental energy, reduced appetite,
perceptions of power , and sociability; hallucinogens with effects of
euphoria, hallucinations, distorted perceptions and sensations
-making the object observe others being tortured (such as family members)
-abuse of object’s national, religious feelings or political views)
The effects of psychological torture are: anxiety, depression, fear,
psychosis, difficulty concentrating, communication disabilities, insomnia,
impaired memory, headaches, hallucinations, sexual disturbances, destruction
of self-image, inability to socialize

Techniques of physical torture include:
-food, water, sleep deprivation
-damage to vital body organs (brain, lungs, kidneys, liver, private parts)
plus electric shock. The brain is particularly dependent on a continuous and
stable supply of oxygen and glucose.
-face deformation
-water cure ( the torturer pours water down the throat of the subject to
inflict the terror of drowning. In another variation, the subject is tied or
held don in a chair, his face is covered with a cloth or plastic sheet, and
water is poured slowly or quickly over his face to encourage him to talk
The effects of physical torture are: extreme (unbearable) pain, hypertension,
fatigue, cardio-pulmonary and other disorders, brain atrophy.

2. Special psychology

1. “Brain washing” (implantation of new ideas). The process is: isolation
from outside world (“information vacuum”) — sleep and food limitation
(very effective) — “bombing” with slogans - ideological aggression -
achieving the result (brain is loaded). The object is now ready to brainwash
2. “Behavior modification” (by placing into a group). The process is:
initial contact — introduction to a group — mutual interests — mutual
activity–mutual ideas — control and prevention of any negative contacts
outside the group. No rush, no pressure.
3. Special psychotherapy methods: talk + drugs + blondes + alcohol (used for
Attention: An alcoholic is more impulsive, untrustful and unreliable; he
demonstrates a poverty of ideas and incapacity for attention. He usually has
serious personality maladjustments. He’s immature, insecure, oversensitive
and anxious. Without alcohol he’s unable to meet and enjoy people socially,
and suffers from marked feeling of inferiority. Besides, alcoholics suffer
from vitamin B1 deficiency, which leads to anatomic changes in the central
nervous system and heart with symptoms like anorexia, fatigability, and sleep
disturbances. Other common symptoms are irritability, poor memory, inability
to concentrate, heart pain.
4. “Transfer” (the object is placed in a regular hospital and then he’s
transferred to a mental health clinic or jail). In jail you can use such
methods an accelerated work schedule (to exhaust the object), turning him
into a number to traumatize his psyche, physical punishment or a threat of
punishment to keep the object tense and depressed; senseless labor to destroy
his personality. Remember: the lower the intellectual level of the object,
the more aggressive he is and more sensitive to incentive or punishment.
You can actually re-organize any object’s behavior by combining rewards and
punishments, exposing him to feared situations and teaching him an instinct
of a total (political) obedience.
Imprisonment is a very strong (sometimes — ultimate) tool. My friend who
spent 10 years in jail described the changes in his behavior like this:
1st year — aggression as self-defense method (to survive)
2nd year — less personal tension, attempts to adapt the mind and body to
the new, isolated way of life
3rd, 4th, 5th — gaining some inside status
6th, 7th — life in jail looks like natural routine
10th — euphoria before gaining freedom

3. Blackmail
Used to force a person to do something (or stop the action) against his will;
it’s used also for recruitment. Blackmail methods include:

1. Leaking “dirt” on the object through media
2. Creating problems in his personal life and career
3. Straight blackmail (threatening to make public certain compromising facts
about him)
4. Placing weapons, drugs, secret documents in object’s house or office,
followed by search and arrest
5. Accusations of rape (robbery) (use hookers for that)
6. Blackmail by pressing family members. Careful, object may commit suicide
after intense blackmail, especially if he is an intellectual

Chapter 3. Special tools

3.1 Surveillance

Actual espionage is not what you see in the movies and you have absolutely
no chance of evasion if a real professional surveillance crew is following
you. Why? Because they use multiple methods and mixed methods.

I. Physical surveillance.

3.1.1 Methods

1. “One line” - officers follow the object forming a line behind him and
passing him one by one.
2. “Two lines” - officers form two lines on both sides of the street.
3. “Circle” - officers block the area and start searching (used in case
they lose the object).
4. “Fork” - one officer (a car) moves in front of the object, another one
— behind, other officers (cars) move along parallel streets.
5. “Box” - used when the object enters supermarket, hotel, restaurant.
One or two officers follow the object, the others wait for him at the exits.
6. “Demonstration” - officers demonstrate their presence to press the
object and lower his activity.
7. “Provocation” - officers attack the object, beat him, steal (secret)
documents. Often used to lower his activity if he’s trying to play James
8. “Outstrip” - officers do not follow the object because they know
exactly where he’s going.
9. “Football” - officers pass the object to each other (car — a group
— bicyclist — car…)
10. “Movie” - the crew watches the object in stages: first day — to the
subway only, second day — from subway to his office, etc. (used abroad).
The crew has to have a female member if they are watching a woman (she could
use the ladies room for a secret meeting) and members of various ethnicities
(white, black, Latino) because the object could go to a specific ethnic area.

3.1.2 If you’re the object and you’ve noticed surveillance:

Don’t rush, move at the same speed.
Relax at the nearest bar (and relax the crew).
Don’t show how professional you are by trying to disappear, otherwise they
could intensify surveillance or even neutralize you (smash your car, beat you
Postpone the operation you were engaged in .
Use a “draught” if you need to see your agent no matter what. Change
lanes (if you are driving), stop the car and then drive left or right.

If you don’t see surveillance, that means either there’s no surveillance
or you’ve failed in counter-surveillance. Discreetly watch the agent
who’s coming to meet you and try to detect any possible surveillance; or
you may have been “outstripped.”

3.1.3 Surveillance crew mistakes:

The same crew follows the object all day long.
The object “rules” the crew and calculates it (he moves faster — the
crew moves faster).
A crew member is too noticeable (unusual dress, haircut, disabled parts of
the body, too fat or too skinny, too ugly or too pretty).
The crew starts to search possible hiding places for espionage evidence right
after the object leaves (and he may be watching).
The crew leaves traces after a secret search of the object’s house
The crew does not report its mistakes or the fact that they’ve lost the
The crew is not professional (using childish tricks like jumping out of a
subway train just before the doors close).

II. Technical Surveillance

1. Visual surveillance. Done through special holes in the ceilings and
walls, through the windows from the opposite building (car) or by installing
the camera inside the house (you can substitute something, like a clock, for
the same thing but “stuffed” with a camera or recorder.) You can use
informant as well to watch the object outside his house (especially if you
want to do a secret search).
2. Listening devices. The easiest thing is to listen to the object’s phone
(record all calls, including those dialed “by mistake”). If you work
inside his apartment, make sure you equip the room where he usually talks.
Attention: avoid widespread mistake when your agent keeps the listening
device on his body; install a miniature device in his clothes or shoes,
because the object could try a test and ask the agent to take off his clothes
or invite him to the sauna or pool.
3. If you are working abroad, listen 24/7 to local counterintelligence
surveillance radiofrequencies.
4. Reading the mail. When you control the object’s mail, remember he could
use multiple addresses and PO boxes. Open all the letters with no return
address or PO box. Watch when you open the letter — the object could leave
a tiny piece of paper, hair, etc. to check if anybody opened the letter.
Analyze the text carefully — there could be a cipher or the words with
double meaning (jargon), especially when you read mafia mail.
5. Combination of above-mentioned methods

3.2 Murders:

3.2.1 Regular

Shooting, explosives or poison (cyanides, curare). Use a sniper or a
“mouse” car (loaded with explosives and parked on the object’s route)
if access to the object is impossible because of high security. Anyway, the
murder is obvious and investigation is inevitable.

General scheme.
The best thing to do is to recruit or “ install” somebody with access to
the object’s security system and get information on his schedule (plus
health and habits), places where he likes to relax. Try to gain access to his
Then prepare the plan and train three groups: surveillance (with optics and
radios), action (includes snipers, explosives technicians or staged accidents
specialists), and security (these people neutralize bodyguards, witnesses and
other people who could interrupt the action; they complete the action if the
action group fails; and they can neutralize the action group later, if
planned so; they “cover” the safe retreat of action group and “cut”
the chase).
For some operations you can modify the ammunition to make it more deadly -
hollow cuts in the tip of the bullets will cause the lead to fragment upon
impact, making a huge exit hole. You reach same effect using bullets with a
drop of mercury in a hollow tip and you can also coat bullets with arsenic or
cyanide. Use depleted, non-radioactive uranium bullets (uranium is much
heavier than lead - it can be used to make a bullet with a smaller slug and a
larger portion of explosive). Teflon bullets are good because with Teflon’s
antifriction characteristics they pierce bullet proof vests.

3.2.2 Complex

Staged accidents (suicides, catastrophes, drowning or fall, robbery or rape
followed by murder, technical accident (fire, electricity, gas), drugs,
weapons, poison, explosives misuse. Also, staged natural death (stroke, heart
attack, chronic illness as a result of special technical devices like
Attention: you can conceal injection sites by choosing areas that could not
be easily detected, such as fingernails or toenails. For staged accidents you
can use acetone (absorption of large quantities via either the respiratory or
gastrointestinal tract results in decreased respiration, stupor and death);
carbon monoxide — acetylene gas, illuminating gas (coal gas), automobile
gas, furnace gas; or a simple novocaine + coffee combination. In some cases
nonbacterial food poisoning is suitable. It can occur following the ingestion
of (1) certain species of mushrooms such as Amanita Muscaria, which contains
the toxic alkaloid muscarine, and Amanita Phalloides, which contains
phalloidin or other toxins, (2) immature or sprouting potatoes, the active
poison of which is colanin, (3) mussels — death may occur as a result of
respiratory failure, (4) grain, especially rye, which has become contaminated
with the ergot fungus, Claviceps Purpurea. Ergot contains a number of active
principles including ergotoxin, tyramine and ergamin (histamine), (5) fruits
sprayed with salts of lead or arsenic and food stored in cadmium-lined
Staged botulism is effective, too. It’s an acute intoxication manifested
by neuromuscular disturbances, following ingestion of food containing a
toxin, elaborated by Clostridium botulinum, a common soil bacillus. The
disease is always caused by the ingestion of improperly preserved food,
usually a home-canned product, in which the toxin has been produced during
the growth of the causative organism. The spores of Clostridium botulinum are
highly resistant to heat; in water they require exposure for 5 hours at
212°F to ensure their death.
The preserved food wherein the toxin is most commonly found are string
beans, corn, spinach, olives, beets, asparagus, sea food, pork products and
beef. The mortality of botulism may be as high as 65 per cent. Most of the
fatal cases die between the 2nd and 9th days following the ingestion of the
toxin. Death usually results from respiratory paralysis or from secondary
bronchopneumonia. In those who survive, the disease usually reaches its
height in the first days of illness. Recovery is characteristically very slow
and residual weakness of the ocular muscles may persist for many months.
Some cases demand usage of poisons, both organic — like concentrated
nicotine that enters the body through skin or concentrated inhalation of
horseradish, garlic or rotten meat, which causes breathing paralysis; poisons
extracted from rattlesnake, cobra, stonefish, and inorganic — arsenic,
thallium, cyanides. Teflon can generate a deadly methane gas; or carbon
tetrachloride can be boiled or burnt so that it gives off lethal phosgene
gas. Any poison could be mixed with an agent that enters the body through the
skin and takes anything with it.
Against terrorists, use their own weapons — high and low explosives. High
explosives include TNT (trinitrotoluene), nitroglycerine, dynamite,
plastique. Nitroglycerine is a mix of nitric acid (made by mixing saltpeter,
potassium nitrate and sulfuric acid, then heating them and condensing the
fumes), pure sulfuric acid and glycerin. TNT (nitric acid, sulfuric acid,
toluene) is far more stable. Plastique is composed of cyclotrimethylene
trinitramine, isomethylene and motor oil.
Low explosives - gasoline, saltpeter, picric acid, acetone peroxide, urea
Many ingredients like gasoline, paraffin naphtha, acetone, swimming-pool
cleaner, high-nitrogen fertilizer are generally available. Saltpeter is
extracted from any soil with old decayed animal or vegetable matter - pour
boiling water through, filter the water through wood ash, boil solution,
remove salt crystals and leave the remaining solution to evaporate until only
the potassium nitrate (saltpeter) crystals are left.
Mixed with sulfur, lampblack and sawdust it becomes a black powder. Urea
nitrate involves boiling a large quantity of urine down to one-tenth of its
volume, mixing that with nitric acid and filtering for the urea nitrate
crystals. Like saltpeter, these crystals are used in pipe bombs. Picric acid
is used as explosive or as a booster for high explosives. Very easy thing to
make is nitrogen tri-iodide — filter ammonia through iodine crystals and
when the resulting brown sludge dries, it will explode on contact.
Fertilizer mixed with fuel oil can be used in a pipe bomb.
A 5-pound bag of flour used with a small amount of low explosive and an
incendiary such as aluminum powder can create a dust explosion big enough to
demolish a room.
Swimming pool cleaner is used in pipe charges. Bleach, acetone and sulfuric
acid combined can form a primary explosive. The explosive substance from a
commercial detonating product can be mixed with acetone and mineral oil —
then a book or newspaper is soaked in the solution, and dried, to create a
powerful explosive that can be detonated with a blasting cap.
Use incendiaries (firebombs) like a Molotov cocktail — a mixture of
gasoline and oil in a corked bottle with a gasoline-soaked rug as a fuse.
Similar is the fire bottle with mixture of gasoline and sulfuric acid.
Light bulbs can be booby trapped with explosives. Letter and parcel bombs
can be made with friction-sensitive tabs.

3.3 Coups

Coups, like war, are one of the most violent tools of special services and
one could be artificially staged in a target country by “feeding” and
“pushing” the political opposition or by using VIP agents in the
government. Most coups are “Bureaucratic,” and entail mainly a change of
leader, usually by person #2. That person might be the trigger or might be
induced to practice “passive sabotage” and allow certain others to take
over. It is also an example of political engineering. Coups usually use the
power of the existing government for its own takeover.

Conditions for a successful coup:
-the army is supportive or at least neutral (a coup usually involves control
of some active
-portion of the military while neutralizing the remainder of the armed
-the leader is out of town (vacation, visit abroad) or is ill
-a political or economic crisis.
-opponents fail to dislodge the plotters, allowing them to consolidate their
position, obtain the surrender or acquiescence of the populace, and claim

3.3.1 Military Coup

Changing a civilian government to a military one, usually in developing
Conditions: a long-term political and economic crisis that threatens national
security and the unity of the country. Military chief(s) eventually let the
people elect a civilian president and form a civilian government after
“re-construction” of political and economic systems. They usually leave
for themselves the right to control further political process. A good example
is the attempt of anti-Nazi officers to assassinate Hitler in a coup. On July
20, 1944, Colonel Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg brought a bomd-laden suitcase
into a briefing room where Hitler was holding a meeting. The bomb exploded
and several persons were killed. Hitler ws wounded, but his life was saved
when the suitcase was unwittingly moved away by someone. Hitler was
shielded from the blast by the conference table, leaving him with minor
injuries. Subsequently about 5,000 people were arrested by the Gestapo and
about 200,including Stauffenberg, were executed in connection with attempt,
some on the very same day (which means that Himmler was involved and knew
perfectly well about the coup).

3.3.2 “Democratic” Coup

A democratic coup would be a change of the government by the most aggressive
(nationalistic) political party.
-artificial or actual government crisis
-mass anti-government propaganda
-organized “democratic” movement all over the country
-provoked mass protests (10,000 particiapants and up) and civil disobedience
To provoke a mass anti-government meeting you have to bring to the place
well-trained group of agitators (bring as many as you can), and they will
inevitably attract an equal number of curious persons who seek adventures and
emotions, as well as those unhappy with the government (unemployed people,
young and old, are usually very supportive). Arrange transportation of the
participants to take them to meeting places in private or public vehicles.
Design placards, flags and banners with different radical slogans or key
words; prepare flyers,pamphlets (with instructions for the participants),
posters and signs (to make the concentration more noticeable). It’s good if
you place a surveillance team on the top floors of the nearby buildings -
they will report any changes in the event; have also messengers to transmit
your orders.Remember, if you clash with police and military and a
participant(s) is being killed, the conflict inflames right away.
Your people can also infiltrate the spontaneous anti-government meeting and
turn it ito a mass radical demonstration with fights and incidents. Key
agitators (with security attached to them) have to be dispersed and stand by
placards, signs, lampposts; they have to avoid places of disturbances, once
they have provoked them.
-the leader of the meeting must be protected by a ring of bodyguards (they
protect him from police or help him to escape).
-government buildings must be “covered” by a blockade
“Democratic” nationalistic coup in Ukraine (2004), so-called “orange
revolution”. Scenario: acts of civil disobedience, strkes, sit-ins (in the
central square), agressive propaganda, mass demands to revote the 2004
Ukrainian presidential election.

3.3.3 Revolution

A change of government and political and economic systems by political
gangsters, usually fed, pushed, incited, and possibly funded and equipped by
the secret services of another country. (Even the American Revolution would
not have succeeded without French military advisors and financial support.)
Government buildings are blockaded, the government isolated, all
communications and transportation systems captured, government media closed,
new government formed.
-political and economic crisis
-mass anti-government propaganda (in the army too)-provoked mass protests and
civil disobedience actions -terror and urban guerillas

3.3.4 Self-coup

The current government assumes extraordinary powers not allowed by the
legislation. It often happens when the president is democratically elected,
but later takes control of the legislative and judicial powers.

Chapter 4. How to run agents.

You can get tons of information through technical devices but no device can
influence decisions made by leaders of other countries. That’s why for
thousands of years to come, a reliable agent will be the top tool of any
special service, and their actual names have to be kept secret forever,
please. A VIP agent (a top government employee) is a very rare thing and
depends hugely on luck, because he can make or influence big political
decisions. If he has access to the Oval Office, he can change the
President’s plans and strategy, and can sabotage political, economic or
military actions. When major presidential initiatives fail, time after time,
one might wonder who is sabotaging whom.
The most important thing a secret source can get is a reliable information
on any possible attempt on the US President’s life, or concerning a
decision of a foreign government to start a war against the United States. A
professional agent is actually is both an instrument (to get information) and
a weapon (to influence or neutralize people).

4.1 Categories:

A.“Garbage” (60%), the “no trust “ category.
Recruitment is #1 priority for the officer and a part of his working plan and
very often he has to recruit people who are not born agents. You can work
with a nice guy, teach him, pay him, press him — and he still avoids any
cooperation (busy, sick, on vacation, etc.). It’s hard to get rid of him
because, first, you have to explain to your superiors why you recruited
garbage and second, there’s a rule: if you want to be very smart and
innovative, a reformer, who came here to start intelligence revolution and
get rid
of a passive agent, recruit an active one first. Also, agents who work under
pressure (blackmail) sooner or later slide into this category.
B. Good agents (30%), middle category. They adhere to the rules of discipline
and keep the schedule (that’s very important even if there’s no
information), deliver a lot of information that you have to verify through
other sources, but don’t show much initiative. Used for regular espionage:
go and talk to the object, copy documents, make a recording, take pictures,
listen, watch. You can trust them and check often, anyway.
C. Born agents (10%). You are very lucky if you can recruit such people. They
betray their country with pleasure and sometimes do not even ask for money
because it’s in their character — they are looking for adventure or are
not happy with their personal or professional life and seek improvement or
revenge. They take risks, have good analytical abilities, good education,
make (VIP) connections easily, “crack” any object, play the “good
guy” whom you can trust. Sometimes they come to you as volunteers, and if
they bring valuable stuff — recruit them.
D. Women. Women are a special category here, as elsewhere, and the rule is:
if you can’t recruit a real agent, you recruit a woman. It’s not
professional to recruit a woman for a serious operation, but if you want to
get to an important object, a woman can introduce you. OK, you can recruit a
US Senator’s secretary or a typist from the Pentagon, but it will be on
your conscience if she gets caught. Such cases entail a life sentence,
usually — how would you feel? Besides, women often fall in love with their
objects and tell them everything. Finally, a married woman is much bigger
problem than a married ma

4.2 Recruitment

Recruit a small number of well-informed people.
Do not recruit:
- psychos
- volunteers (unless it’s a “mole” or other government employee who
brings you top secret information right away. In a counter-intelligence
set-up, a “volunteer” will try to get information about you, telling the
minimum about himself.)
- persons with low educational and intellectual level
- people under 30 or over 70, unless it’s a VIP. (Did someone get Jim
Baker? Dick Cheney?)
- mafia members
- people who are happy with their lives and careers
The best formula when you recruit is a mix of money and ideology
(brainwashing). It’s not necessary to sign recruitment obligations —
people take that as a blackmail tool. It’s enough if the fellow brings a
good piece of information and get paid (make a video, anyway).

Recruitment Pyramid
Priority recruitment candidates in the USA:

The White House staff
The Cabinet and federal agencies
The US Congress
Big corporations
Big scientific institutions
Local politicians
VIP world (celebrities — big media, show biz, big sport)

4.2.1 Candidates for recruitment

1. All spies who work in the USA under legal “cover” as diplomats,
reporters, scientists, businessmen, actors, artists, musicians, sportsmen
have the legal right to make and develop any contacts and invite people to
private parties; then they “transfer” these contacts to professional
recruiters. Any embassy can invite any politician to official and private
parties and “work” with him there. Besides, all those people can invite
prospective candidates to their countries or to other country to develop the
contact; it’s much easier to recruit abroad. And remember, any contact, any
talk, any piece of biography is already information.
2. You can get information about candidates through other agents and through
the media.
3. It’s useful to install listening devices in the government buildings or
listen to the phones, and collect compromising information on politicians. I
recommend listening to the phones all over the city, if it’s the capital of
the country.

The biggest mistake in FBI history was made by homosexual FBI Director Edgar
Hoover. In 1971 Elvis Presley shook hands with President Nixon at the Oval
Office, and was granted a private tour of FBI headquarters. There he
volunteered as a secret source - Hoover said “no”. Idiot.

4.2.2 Deciding if candidate is viable

When an agent candidate appears, judgments are needed on four essential
questions to decide if a potential operation makes sense, if the candidate is
the right person for the operation, and if one’s own service can support
the operation.
Has he told you everything ? Enough information can ordinarily be obtained
in one or two sessions with the candidate . CIA idiots use polygraph –
don’t do it ! Does he have stayability ? This term combines two concepts
– his ability to maintain access to the counterintelligence target for the
foreseeable future, and his psychological stamina under the constant (and
often steadily increasing) pressure of the double agent’s role. If he lacks
stayability he may still be useful, but the operation must then be planned
for short range. Does the adversary trust him ? Indications of the adversary
trust can be found in the level of the communications system given him, his
length of service . If the opposition keeps the agent at arm’s length,
there is little prospect that doubling him will yield significant returns. To
decide between what the officer thinks the motive is and what the agent says
is not easy, because agents act out of a wide variety of motivations,
sometimes psychopathic ones like masochistic desire for punishment by both
services. Other have financial, religious (that’s how Israelis recruit),
political or vindictive motives. The last are often the best double agents:
they get pleasure out of deceiving their colleagues.
Its important to recognize signs of sociopathic personality disorder in
potential double agent. Sociopaths are unusually calm and stable under stress
but can’t tolerate routine or boredom. They have above-average
intelligence. They are good polyglots, sometimes in two or more languages.
Their reliability as agents is largely determined by the extent to which the
case officer’s instructions coincide with what they consider their own best
interests. They are naturally clandestine and enjoy secrecy and deception for
its own sake. They do not form lasting and adult emotional relationships with
other people because their attitude toward others is exploitative. They are
skeptical and even cynical about the motives and abilities of others but have
exaggerated notions about their own competence. They are ambitious in short
sense only – they want much and they want it now. They do not have patience
to plod toward a distant reward.
The candidate must be considered as a person and the operation as a
potential. Possibilities which would otherwise be rejected out of hand can be
accepted if the counterintelligence service is or will be in a position to
obtain and maintain an independent view of both the double agent and the
case. The estimate of the potential value of the operation must take into
consideration whether the case has political implications.

4.3 Working with secret sources.

"Golden" rules.

1. Do not tell the agent about problems and mistakes of the agency, about
your personal problems, about other agents, about his own file and
compromising information you have on him.
2. Don’t show him any classified documents — you might provoke him to
sell the information to somebody else.
3. Don’t trust your agents too much; they can use you to compromise their
personal enemies.
4. Never criticize the source — be an adviser. Don’t talk straight if he
avoids cooperation or brings you garbage — just reduce or stop payments, or
get rid of him.
5. You lose the agent if you don’t pay him for a job well done, ask him to
“produce” fake information (to show your bosses how much great espionage
activity you have going on) or if you don’t care about his personal
security and his personal problems (health, career). And — never give
poison to your agent for security reasons.

4.3.1 Questioning the source.
This is of extreme importance — the right question brings you the right
answer and top secret info. Give your agent a chance to tell and show you
everything he’s brought, no matter how chaotic the story might be or how
ordinary the documents look. Don’t make written notices. Don’t bring
written questions even if you are talking about some advanced technology —
look and be professional. Don’t let the agent analyze the information
before he talks to you and don’t let him bring it in a written form —
it’s usually not complete; he can lose it; or it may be stolen from him. If
there are documents, he has to bring a microfilm. Ask questions — when?
where? what happened? why? what’s going to happen next?
After that you tell the story back to him and he adds details. At the end
of the meeting give the agent another task and don’t ask him to bring you
“something,” because he’ll bring you just that “something” and
nothing else.
Remember, questioning is not interrogation; do not bring another officer to
the meeting because it will look like cross interrogation.

4.3.2 Teaching the source
Teach your agent to:
- follow security rules while talking to people, working with the documents
and especially meeting the officer (some foreign agencies practice open
contacts with many people, hoping that the meeting with the agent won’t
attract much attention — I don’t recommend that)
- always stay calm in stressful situations
- always keep discipline and come in time
- use analytic abilities working with people and documents — ask yourself
as many questions as you can

4.3.3 Checking the source
You can never be sure you are not working with a “double agent,” even if
he brings you top secret stuff. Besides, agents are human beings and they
make mistakes — they forget about security, spend too much money, talk too
much and ask extra questions; if arrested they may not play the hero but will
tell everything. Anyway, you can check your source:
a. by fake arrest followed by severe interrogation.
b. through provocation (tell him you know about his “double game” and
watch his behavior after the meeting (it’s good to have a listening device
or a camera in his house).
c. by making an analysis of all the information and documents he delivers and
comparing it with information from other sources.
d. through other agents.
e. through your “mole” in counter-intelligence (if you’re lucky).
f. through technical devices (reading the mail, listening to the phone,
secret searching his house and office, watching him through hidden cameras,
trying surveillance in the street).

4.3.4 Agent termination (one-way ticket)
It doesn’t happen often but you have to know some special situations when
you have to terminate the agent:
1. He knows too much (talks too much) and is ready to betray you.
2. VIP agent (politician) is under suspicion and you can’t help him for
political reasons (diplomatic, international scandal, etc.) — in such a
case an accident could be staged. It happens that the agent is too close to
3. Agent was involved in special operations (murders) and is dangerous as a
4. Agent is trying to blackmail you.
5. You need to press (blackmail) other agents.

Chapter 5 . FBI Helper

5.1 "Golden rules"

1. Don’t die a hero - that’s bad planning, poor training and lack of
experience; the dead man goes to a hall of shame and stupidity. Bad planning
is an operational failure; once things have gone off track it is far more
complicated to achieve the objective. Multi-step complex operations come from
the fantasies of bureaucrats who watch too many movies. Keep it simple if you
want to get it right.
2. Never provoke people to break the law - that’s not professional.
3. Always look for insider if it’s about sophisticated operation (bank
robbery, etc.).

5.2 Investigation

5.2.1 Stages:

- secure and examine carefully the crime scene (every person who enters the
scene is a potential destroyer of physical evidence)
- record the scene (make photos, sketches, notes with detailed written
description of the scene with the location of evidences recovered)
- collect physical evidences (blood, semen, saliva, hair, documents, drugs,
weapons and explosives, poisonous substances, fingerprints, traces, soils and
minerals, fiber) and package everything
- collect confessions and eyewitnesses accounts and then
- make a plan of investigation and correct it later
- research similar crimes and criminals involved
- make a model (profile) of the suspect
- analyze expertise data
- work with secret sources
- cooperate with other divisions (abroad, if needed)
- make arrest
- interrogate

5.2.2 Arrest

In daytime arrest people discreetly — don’t bring extra public
irritation. There’s a general rule: more arrests — less crime prevention
(after being in jail people, engage in more sophisticated and secret criminal
activity). After mass arrests at certain places (buildings) repeat the action
in a day or two.


- chasing the object, block the area into circles (follow the plan for a
certain area) and try to “push” him to a certain place where your team is
- taking the object in the street: look around for his partner(s), who could
shoot you from behind
- be on the alert if anybody tries to talk to you in the street — it could
be an attempt to divert your attention
- arresting a crew, shoot and disarm any people with guns first
- never hesitate to shoot terrorists — some of them have mental problems
and won’t think a second before shooting you
- arrest a dangerous object while he’s relaxed (drugs, alcohol, sex, sleep)
and don’t let him kill himself, eliminate evidences or warn his partners.
(Most people feel more relaxed when traveling abroad.) To take the object
alive, scream, shoot over his head, use smoke and light grenades.
- camouflage your team (as ambulance workers, construction workers, vendors,
- if there’s a crowd around the object, shoot in the air and order
everybody to lie down— the object has no choice
- if the object is well armed and very dangerous (and you have intelligence
information on that), you have to shoot him even in a very crowded area as
you never know what he’s going to do next — take hostages, shoot people
or blow up a bomb (three wounded people is a better score than three hundred

5.2.3 Interrogation

Interrogation is a conversational process of information gathering. The
intent of interrogation is to control an individual so that he will either
willingly supply the requested information or, if someone is an unwilling
participant in the process, to make the person submit to the demands for

Remember, people tend to:

-talk when they are under stress and respond to kindness and understanding.
-show deference when confronted by superior authority, This is culturally
dependent, but in most areas of the world people are used to responding to
questions from a variety of government and quasi-government officials.
-operate within a framework of personal and culturally derived values. People
tend to respond positively to individuals who display the same value system
and negatively when their core values are challenged.
-respond to physical and, more importantly, emotional self-interest.
-fail to apply or remember lessons they may have been taught regarding
security if confronted with a disorganized or strange situation
-be more willing to discuss a topic about which the interrogator demonstrates
identical or related experience or knowledge
-appreciate flattery and exoneration from guilt


Before you interrogate the object, you have to gather some intelligence on
him — examine his documents, read his files (if any), interrogate his
partners or co-workers. Then you must establish and develop rapport, when the
object reacts to your statements. Rapport may be developed by asking
background questions about his family, friends, likes, dislikes; by offering
incentives like coffee, alcohol, cigarettes, meals, or offers to send a
letter home; by feigning experiences similar to those of the object; by
showing concern for the object through the use of voice vitality and body
language; by helping the source rationalize his guilt; by flattering the
object. Be convincing and sincere, and you’ll control the object for sure.
( Hollywood “insists” on using the “truth serum”, but I can tell you
one thing – KGB never used it, a professional interrogater does not need
it. I know about tests with Oxytocin, when 130 college students were randomly
given a snort of Oxytocin or placebo. Half were then designated
“investors” and were given money. They could keep or transfer some or
all of the money to a student “trustee”, whom they did not know and could
not see. The act of transferring money tripled its value, creating a big
payoff for the trustee receiving it. That person could then keep it all or
acknowledge the investor’s trust by returning some portion. The investors
getting Oxytocin on average transferred more money than those getting
placebos, and twice as many – 45% versus 21% - showed maximal trust and
transferred it all. Oxytocin had no effect on how much money trustees shared
back with their investors, suggesting that the hormone acted specifically to
promote trust in situations where there was risk and uncertainty. My
conclusion is : you can you drugs like Oxytocin to improve and accelerate
rapport, nothing else).
After that you can start questioning using follow-up questions (they flow
one from another based on the answer to previous questions), break-up
questions (to “break” the object’s concentration, if he’s lying, by
interrupting him all the time), repeated questions (to check the previous
information), control questions (developed from information you believe to be
true and based on information which has been recently confirmed and which is
not likely to be changed. They are used to check the truthfulness of the
object’s responses and should be mixed in with other questions throughout
the interrogation), prepared questions developed in advance of interrogation
to gain precise wording or the most desirable questioning sequence (they are
used primarily for interrogations which are technical in nature), leading
questions (to prompt the object to answer with the response he believes you
wish to hear) to verify information.
There are two types of questions that you should not use - these are
compound and negative questions. Compound questions are questions which ask
for at least two different pieces of information and they are, actually, two
or more questions in one. They allow the object to avoid giving a complete
answer. Negative questions are questions which are constructed with “no,”
“not,” “none.” They should be avoided because they may confuse the
object and produce false information.
Never allow the suspect to deny guilt. But it’s good if he is involved in
discussion and gives you the reason why he didn’t or couldn’t commit the
crime, because you can prove he’s wrong and move him towards offering
alternatives and giving two choices for what happened; one more socially
acceptable than other. The suspect is expected to choose the easier option
but whichever alternative he chooses, guilt is admitted. Also, offer
punishment alternatives and deals and lead the suspect to repeat the
admission of guilt in front of witnesses.


a) “good cop / bad cop”
b)“story under a story” (after intense interrogation the object tells a
different story — which is not true, either)
c) “bombing” with questions
d) pressure by not interrogating
e) “silence makes your situation worse” trick
f) “admit one small episode and that’s it” trick
g) “I help you — you help me” trick
h) “shift” - try to shift the blame away from the suspect to some
other person or set of circumstances that prompted the subject to commit the
crime. That is, develop themes containing reasons that will justify or
excuse the crime. Themes may be developed or changed to find one to which the
accused is most responsive.

Remember, every object has a breaking point and there are some indicators
that the object is near his breaking point or has already reached it. If the
object leans forward and his facial expression indicates an interest in the
proposal or is more hesitant in his argument, he is probably nearing the
breaking point.

If you are being interrogated,

your major objective is to buy time and use “effective talking,”
disclosing information that is correct, but outdated or worthless. I can
add also a few words about the polygraph (“lie detector”) , which
measures heart rate, blood pressure, respiration rate, and skin conductivity
to detect emotional arousal, which in turn supposedly reflects lying versus
truthfulness. The polygraph does in fact measure sympathetic nervous system
arousal, but scientific research shows that lying is only loosely related to
anxiety and guilt. Some people become nervous when telling the truth, whereas
others remain calm when deliberately lying. Actually, a polygraph cannot tell
which emotion is being felt (nervousness, excitement, sexual arousal) or
whether a response is due to emotional arousasl or something else, such as
physical exercise. Although proponents contend that polygraph tests are 90%
or more accurate, tests show error rates ranging between 25 and 75 percent.
My own experience says that you can successfully lie to polygraph. In
1987, while at KGB Andropov Intelligence Institute, I was tested by “lie
detector”, and I failed the first set of questions, like :” Have you ever
cheated on your wife?” or “Do you like prostitutes?”. Then I relaxed
for half an hour watching other students going through the procedure, and
took the test again – this time I tried to stay absolutely indifferent and
“programmed” to lie. I won . I think, the best thing is to use “guilty
knowledge” questions to make the polygraph reliable – that is, questions
based on specific information that only a guilty person would know ( such as
the place where the object (a “mole”) had a “brush contact” with
intelligence officer) – the idea is that guilty person would recognize
these specific cues and respond in a different way than an innocent person.

5.2 The Mafia

5.2.1 Levels:
1. Lower: drugs, weapons, racketeering, money laundering and other regular
criminal activity
2. Middle: involvement in economy (big banks and corporations) and politics
3. Upper: government infiltration

5.2.2 Rules:
- help your brother no matter what
- revenge is inescapable
- obey orders and keep silence, order is a trust
- minimum membership with maximum profit
- leave no evidences (no papers),
- don’t lie, steal, or cheat
- there’s no justice but mafia justice
- live and die together

5.2.3 Action

The basic principle is a total secrecy of structure, methods, operations,
names and banking accounts. The most powerful tool is an exchange of favors.
The Mafia covers any country with a chain of connections, creating a perfect
terrain for total corruption. The first row of the Mafia’s best friends are
corrupted police and FBI officers, second row — local and federal
politicians. The Mafia cultivates mutual help, protects better than a law and
that’s why mafia laws are primary for the members of a family. Members get
help from the family automatically and it’s a very strong incentive. The
Mafia launches political murders only if certain politicians seriously offend
its big financial interests. Have you noticed that every presidential
candidate is ready to fight crime but nobody is talking about fighting the
Mafia? You can’t win, but you can keep the Mafia under control. And you
have to control the Mafia because it penetrates politics, and political
psychology (behavior) could be substituted by a criminal psychology, and that
will be the end of America.
I have met Italian mafia members because they were racketeering a huge
bakery in Boro Park, Brooklyn, where my friends worked, and because I lived
in Italian area of Brooklyn – Bensonhurst. A very polite man about 40 used
to come to the bakery every Thursday and even talked to the workers while
waiting for his weekly envelope with the money. In Bensonhurst I lived in
private house owned by Italians, who didn’t talk much, but showed enough
respect to John Gotti, the Gambino crime family boss, who died in prison in
I have also met Russian mafia members both in Russia and in the United
States and know them very well. I can’t agree with FBI and police experts
who don’t see much threat from those people. First, they don’t hesitate
to kill, even if it’s a cop. Second, they are not afraid of American
prisons and even have people who stay in jail for years to “teach” young
generation of gangsters. Third, they don’t mix with other ethnic groups
(for security reasons). Fourth, they usually look for big illegal business
opportunities, like serious money laundering or drugs, weapons and diamonds
trafficking. (When it comes to drugs, it has to be wholesale only —
Russians don’t sell drugs on American streets.)
“Five [Italian] Families” based in New York City control organized
crime activities all over America. Their criminal interests include labor
racketeering, narcotics, pornography, gambling, loansharking, extortion,
solid and waste dumping violations, hijacking, pier thefts and fencing. These
families are: Genovese Family (the most powerful, secretive and disciplined
crime family in USA),Gambino Family, Bonanno Family, Lucchese Family and
Colombo Family.
Other families ( altogether there are about 3,000 Italian gangsters in USA)
DeCavalcante family ( New Jersey), small and less powerful.
“Chicago Outfit” (Chicago) controls Chicago, runs many of the Las Vegas
gambling establishments, is almost equal in power with the New York Families.
Los Angeles family, controls Hollywood; due to influx of Hispanic and
African-American crime gangs in California the mafia has very little control
over crime, although they still operate and run rackets across the town.
“The Partnership” (Detroit).
“The Arm” (Buffalo).
St. Louis family.
LaRocca family.
Marcello family.
Lanza family.
“Russian” (former Soviet) mafia organizations in USA
Kikalishvili, Fineberg, Chechnya, Dagestan, “Lubertsy”, Mazutkin,
Baklanov, Kazan’, Brandvein, Sorkin, Rudyak, Brook, Ibragimov, Ittayev,
Efros, Sogomonyan, Arakelyan, Brikyan, “Vilnus”, “Vorkuta”,

5.2.4 FBI tricks:
a) “house trap”: Spread information that a certain place is packed with
money or drugs, and prepare an ambush.
b) advertise discreetly (through your sources) some semi-legal or illegal
business. People who are willing to get involved in dubious operations will
“fly” to you (change cities).
c) encourage wars between mafia families.
d) “car trap”: Install a video camera in an expensive car and leave it
in the “bad” area. A thief gets in a car and … the trap is closed.

Have some fun, guess who this is: blue jeans, blue baseball jacket, work
boots, silver chain (with a badge under T-shirt), short haircut, clean-shaved
face, “walkie-talkie,” Pepsi and cheap cookies, walks like a President of
the United States and looks straight into your eyes like a pastor. (NYPD

5.3 How to Manage Civil Disturbance

The FBI and the police have to join forces in response to any serious tip
about a “planned crowd,” one which is being organized to assemble at the
call of a leader and step forward with serious political demands, and is
ready to create a civil disturbance. Civil disturbance arises when a crowd
gathers to air grievances on issues and transfers its anger from the issues
to the people dealing with the issues, swells uncontrollably as curious
bystanders and sympathetic onlookers join forces with the activists or
protectors, is incited to irrational action by skillful agitators, adopts
irrational behavior and becomes a mob. And if the crowd comes to encompass
two or more groups with opposing views, they become engaged in a violent
The crowd is the engine and the basic human element of a civil disturbance
action. When blocked from expressing its emotions in one direction, a
crowd’s hostility often is, or can be, re-directed elsewhere. In a civil
disturbance environment, any crowd can be a threat to law and order because
it is open to manipulation. Leadership has a profound effect on the intensity
and direction of the crowd behavior. In many crowd situations, the members
become frustrated by confusion and uncertainty and they want to be directed.
The first person to give clear orders in an authoritative manner is likely to
be followed. A skillful agitator can increase a crowd’s capacity for
violence and direct a crowd’s aggression toward any target included in his
statement (he can also use the media to reach millions of people and incite
them to unlawful acts, or even a revolution, without having a direct personal
contact). On the other hand, an experienced leader is also able to calm down
a crowd and avoid a social explosion.A crowd is affected by negative emotions
and panic, which can occur during a civil disturbance when people think or
feel danger is so close at hand that the only course of action is to flee;
when they think the escape routes are limited or that only one escape route
exists; think the limited routes are blocked; believe an escape route is open
after it was blocked and in trying to force a way to the exit, cause those in
front to be crushed, smothered, or trampled; are not able to disperse quickly
after being exposed to riot agents and begin to believe their lives are at

Chapter 6. Spies Identification.

6.1 "Moles"

A “mole” is a spy inside the government, recruited or “installed”
most often within the special services, by an outside government/agency. The
3 most dangerous things a “mole” can do:
1. Calculate President’s plans and decisions judging by information he’s
asking for.
2. Manipulate information being sent to President, and thus influence global
political decisions
3. Paralyze to some extent the government (if he’s CIA or FBI Director)

6.1.1 How the "mole' sees himself

Special, even unique. Deserving. His situation (career and money) is not
satisfactory. No other (easier) option (than to engage in espionage. Not a
bad person. Espionage isn’t very wrong – many people
worldwide do it. His performance in his government job is separate from
espionage; espionage does not discount his contribution in the workplace.
Security procedures do not really) apply to him.
He sees his situation in a context in which he faces continually narrowing
options, until espionage seems reasonable. He sees espionage as
“victimless” ( government isn’t a victim!) crime. Once he considers
espionage, he figures out how he might do it. These are mutually reinforcing,
often simultaneous events. He finds that’s it’s easy to go around
security safeguards. He belittles the security system, feeling that if the
information was really important, espionage would be hard to do (the
information would be better protected). He is anxious on initial hostile
intelligence service contact. In the course of long term activity “mole”
can reconsider his involvement. Sometimes he considers telling authorities
everything. Those wanting to reverse their role aren’t confessing,
they’re negotiating. Those who are “stressed out” want to confess.
Neither wants punishment, both attempt to minimize or avoid punishment.

6.1.2 Methods to detect a “mole"

A. Use index cards (special file) — never use computers to save this
Prepare a file on each officer and mark there the signs of a “mole” —
has or spends too much money, asks too many extra questions; uses
professional skills to check for physical and technical surveillance; has
discreet contacts with foreigners; discreet copying of top secret documents;
attempts to get a job in most secret departments; talks with close friends
and family members about the possibility of making money as a “mole”;
behavior deviations — extra suspiciousness, excitement, depression, drugs
or alcohol addiction. Three signs are enough to start an investigation —
the “triangulation” principle.
B. Use provocation. If a prospective “mole” is looking for a contact with
the enemy and is ready to betray, and you have exact information, organize
such a “meeting” for him. Do not arrest the person right away — play
along, as he may give you connections to other people who are ready to
betray. There’s one more provocation method: you supply the suspects with
“highly classified information” and just watch what they do.
C. Use “filter” or “narrowing the circle.” Include all the officers
you suspect in a “circle” and narrow it until one name is left as the
most likely suspect.
D. Make a “model” of a “mole,” judging by information you have on
E. Recruit an insider. Recruit a “mole” inside your enemy’s
intelligence service and he’ll help you to find the one inside yours
(it’s called “grabbing the other end of a thread”).
F. Don’t trust anybody.

6.1.3 What to Do If You Detect a “Mole”

- assess the damage
- restrict his access to classified information and start “feeding” him
with fake data
- stop all operations he was involved in and create the illusion they are
still in progress
- bring home officers and agents who work abroad and had contacts with him
and those to whose files he had access
- start 24/7 surveillance if you’ve decided to play the game and look into
his contacts
- arrest the “mole” discreetly (if you want to continue the game)

Effective methods to prevent treason do not exist.

6.1.4 How to Cover Your “Mole”

There are special methods to cover your own “mole” and a “switch” is
the most effective — it’s when you “switch” counterintelligence to
other, innocent persons who work with the “mole.” You can try information
“leaks” through a “double agent” — it looks like you receive top
secret information through another traitor or by breaking the electronic
security systems. Or you can try information “leak” through publications
in big newspapers — it looks like information is not secret and is known to
many people or there’s another “mole.”
By the way, was John Deutch, Bill Clinton’s CIA Director, a Russian
“mole” covered by the US President? Let's see.

John Deutch was born in Belgium to a Russian father and he was the only
Russian CIA Director. His biography is very impressive. He graduated from
Amherst College (B.A. in history and economics) and earned a B.S. in chemical
engineering and Ph.D. in physical chemistry from Massachusetts Institute of
Technology (MIT), where the KGB loves to recruit future scientists. He served
in the following professional positions.
1970-1977 MIT Chairman of the Chemistry Department Dean of Science and
1977-1980 The US Department of Energy: Director of Energy Research
Acting Assistant Secretary for Energy Technology
Under Secretary
1980-1981 President’s Nuclear Safety Oversight Commission
1983 President’s Commission on Strategic Forces
1985-1989 The White House Science Council
1990-1993 The President’s Intelligence Advisory Board
1993-1994 Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition and Technology
Deputy Defense Secretary
1995-1996 Director of Central Intelligence
1996 The President’s Commission on Aviation Safety and Security
1998-1999 Chairman of the Commission to Assess the Organization of the
Federal Government to Combat the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Since 2000 — MIT Professor and Director for Citigroup. Awarded Public
Service Medals from the following Departments: State, Energy, Defense, Army,
Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard plus Central Intelligence Distinguished Medal
and the Intelligence Community Distinguished Intelligence Medal.

John Deutch was appointed Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) by
President Clinton and stayed in Langley for a short period of time, from May
10, 1995 to December 14, 1996. My professional opinion is: John Deutch, a
former Russian DCI, is a Russian “mole,” and he’s not been arrested
because President Clinton obstructed the investigation and pardoned this
enemy of state in 2001.

Three signs are enough to triangulate a “mole” and here they are for Mr.

1. Two days after Deutch retired from the CIA, on December 16, 1996,
technical personnel discovered at his house highly classified information
stored on his unclassified computer, loaded from his agency computer. He
refused to explain why he violated strict security rules.
First, a normal Director of Central Intelligence doesn’t need highly
classified data on his home computer, because he is a bureaucrat, not an
Second, here we have a trick — the Internet-connected computer is
accessible by anyone with some technical knowledge and you don’t have to
send anything — the Russians will read secret information right from your
home computer. Simple.
2. In 1997 the CIA began a formal security investigation. It was determined
that his computer was often connected to the Internet with no security, and
that Deutch was known to leave memory cards with classified data lying in his
car. Deutch used his influence to stop further any investigation and the CIA
took no action until 1999, when it suspended his security clearances. He
admitted finally the security breach and merely apologized.
3. In 1999 the Defense Department started its own investigation, and it
appeared that in 1993 Deutch, as Defense Undersecretary, used unsecured
computers at home and his America Online (!) account to access classified
defense information. As Deputy Defense Secretary, he declined departmental
requests in 1994 to allow security systems to be installed in his residence.
4. In 2000 Senator Charles Grassley asked the Justice Department to look into
the case. There was no investigation.
5. In 2001 President Clinton pardoned Deutch. There were no comments.

Now, the question is: why is he still in the US if he’s a “mole” under
suspicion? I see only one explanation - he has a very powerful friend who can
give orders to Attorney General and Secretary of Defense.

P.S. Professor Deutch is still at the Department of Chemistry, MIT. In March
2006 I asked him for an interview. As far as I know, he’s still pondering
that request.

6.1.5 KGB "moles" inside CIA

Aldrich Ames

Aldrich Ames, b. 1941, began working for CIA in 1962. In 1969, on his first
assignment as a case officer , he was stationed in Ankara, Turkey, where his
to was to target Soviet intelligence officers for recruitment. When assigned
to the US Embassy to Mexico in 1983, he committed adultery with Rosario
Dupuy, an employee of the Colombian Embassy to Mexico. Upon his return to the
States, he began divorce proceedings against his wife, ho had the upper hand
in taking the joint assets of their marriage as the divorce was on the
grounds of unfaithfulness. He also began cohabitation with Rosario, who was
spending a lot of his money, as she was a shopaholic. The financial pressure
of is divorce and Rosario’s high living made Ames think of a way to figure
out how to make big money. Nobody paid attention that he was a chronic
alcoholic. In 1985 he walked into the Soviet Embassy in Washington, D.C. and
turned himself into KGB “mole”.
Ames was assigned to the CIA’s Europe Division/Counterintelligence branch,
where he was responsible for directing the analysis of KGB intelligence
operations. The information Ames provided led to the execution of at least 10
U.S. secret sources, mostly KGB officers. KGB paid Ames $4.6 million, and
with that money he bought a new $60,000 Jaguar (that was his official salary
), jewelry, designer clothing and a house in Northern Virginia valued
$500,000 and paid in cash; his wife’s monthly phone bills exceeded $6,000.
In 1986 and in 1991, Ames passed two polygraph screening examinations. (
Markus Wolf, the retired director of Stasi’s foreign intelligence
directorate, claimed in is memoirs that Gardner Hathaway, the CIA
counterintelligence director, approached him in 1990 with an offer of
cosmetic surgery, lavish compensation, and a new life in USA if he were to
defect and help CIA to identify the “mole”. Wolf declined the offer, as
he did not have sufficient guarantees that the CIA would not betray him).He
was arrested in 1994 by FBI. Ames and his wife liquidated about $2.5 million
of the KGB money (they still have $2.1 million in a Russian bank account).

Robert Hanssen

Robert Hanssen (born 1944) joined FBI in 1976. He was compiling a database
of Soviet intelligence, and already in 1979 he approached GRU (Soviet
military intelligence) and offered his services. He betrayed a very important
CIA source
“Dmitriy Polyakov (“Topohat”), GRU general ( he became a “mole”,
because he was denied to take his seriously ill son to a hospital in New
York, where Polykov was with the Soviet delegation to UNO; his son soon died
as a result of illness.Polyakov was executed in 1988).
In 1981 his wife caught him in the basement writing a letter to Russians.
Hanssen said he got $30,000 from Russians, but gave them false intelligence
information; he stopped his activity . In 1983 he was transferred to the
Soviet analytical unit, which was directly responsible for capturing Soviet
spies in the U.S., and in two years resumed cooperation, this time – with
KGB, giving the names of 3 KGB “moles”, Boris Yuzhin (served 6 years in
jail), Valeriy Marrtrynov and Sergei Motorin (both executed). In 1987 he was
tasked with making a study of all past penetrations or rumored penetrations
of the FBI in order to find a “mole” who betrayed Russian “moles”
Hanssen and his KGB case officers did not use sophisticated communication
devices, but relied on mail, the telephone, signal sites and dead drops. He
passed 26 diskettes to KGB and got 12 diskettes from them; he sent 27
letters, loaded 22 packages in dead drops and had two phone conversations.
KGB got information on MASINT (Measurement and Signature Intelligence) and
FBI Double Agent Program with complete list of agents. Each time a meeting
outside the United States was raised, Hanssen rejected it. He told KGB that
foreign travel was a tipoff to counterintelligence of possible espionage
activity. He was concerned about security and used to check the FBI’s
Automated Case Support System (ACS) to determine if any of his activities
came to the Bureau’s attention.
In 1990 Hanssen’s brother-in-law Marc Wauck, who was also an FBI employee,
reported to the Bureau, that Hanssen should be investigated for espionage
after Marc’s sister found a pile of cash in Hanssen’s dresser. Besides,
once Hanssenn was talking to his wife about retiring in Poland, then under
Soviet domination. Wauk spoke to his supervisor, who took no action.
He stopped cooperation in 1991 with Soviet Union collapse, but in 1993 he
approached GRU again. He went in person to the Russian embassy and tried to
talk to a GRU officer in the embassy’s parking garage; he identified
himself as “Ramon Garcia”, a “disaffected FBI agent” and offered his
services. The Russian officer got into the car and drove off. Russians then
filed an official protest with the State Department, believing the man was a
double agent. Despite showing his face, giving away his code name and
revealing he was FBI, Hanssen escaped arrest (he resumed cooperation with SVR
in 1999). Hanssen expressed interest in a transfer to the new National
Counterintelligence Center, but when a superior told him he had to take a lie
detector test to join, he changed his mind.
In 1994, after Aldrich Ames was arrested, FBI started “mole”-hunting
inside the Bureau. They found another guy, CIA Harold Nicholson, Hanssen
escaped detection. In 1996, convicted FBI “mole” Earl Pitts told the
Bureau he suspected Robert Hanssen of being a spy because he had broken into
another agent’s computer. No action was taken. FBI decided then to buy the
“mole’s” identity. They found a Russian businessman and a former KGB
agent, whose identity remains classified. American company invited him for
business meeting. He came to New York and FBI offered $7 million for
information. The Russian said he didn’t know the name, but he had the
actual KGB/SVR file, which covered the “mole’s” correspondence with KGB
in 1985-1991 and included a tape recording of “Ramon Garcia”. In November
2000, FBI obtained the file and identified Hanssen. They placed him under
24/7 surveillance and searched his car twice; to kept him out of sensitive
data he was given a job supervising FBI computer security. Hanssen realized
that something was wrong, but it didn’t stop from another drop. He was
arrested at his dead drop place in 2001 and sentenced to life in prison
without parole. He got $1.4 million in cash and diamonds for his job.

6.2 Identifying Spies

If a spy is an intelligence officer working abroad under “cover”
(diplomat, businessman, reporter) you can identify him by:
- following the careers of all diplomats who work at your enemy’s embassies
all over the world
- recruiting a “mole” inside the intelligence service (or inside the
- setting up your agent for recruitment by the enemy’s station
- watching foreigners who try to make discreet contacts with native citizens
with access to secrets
- making a model of a spy (professional behavior, attempts to detect
surveillance, attempts to recruit sources or just get any classified
information during normal meetings, “throwing away” money trying to get
access to government employees, military and scientific circles)
- using secret surveillance and listening devices inside the station and
practicing secret searches

If a spy is an intelligence officer working in your country under “cover”
of a native citizen (or he is recruited by a native citizen) you identify him
by making a model (contacts with identified spies — that’s often the only
sign which points out a spy, and that’s why surveillance is very important
in getting information from a “mole”).

Chapter 7. Strategies.

Every operation demands a set of original methods, especially if we are
talking about strategic intelligence. I give you a few examples.

1. “Domino” or “chain reaction.” A coup, revolution or civil war in
one country provokes the same actions in other countries (neighbors).
2. “False flag”. The planned, but never executed, 1962 Operation
Northwoods plot by the U.S. administration for a war with Cuba involved
scenarios such as hijacking a passenger plane and blaming it on Cuba.
3. “Sliding” strategy. Transformation of a secret operation into an open
one: support of illegal opposition/coup.
4. “Restriction.” You damage (limit) international and economic
connections (projects) of the enemy.
5. “Monopoly.” Special operation to keep country’s monopoly or status
as economic leader or special (nuclear) holder, or high tech producer.
Includes actions to restrict the attempts of other countries to get strategic
raw materials and modern weapons and technologies.
6. “Reverse effect.” The government declares a certain goal and launches
a military or special operation, but the result is something quite different,
possibly opposite. Examples: instead of separating (ethnic) group “A”
from group “B” both of them are being exterminated; instead of peace and
democracy in a certain region, power is being concentrated in one group and
the opposition is being exterminated.
7. “Clash.” You “clash” the government and opposition of a target
country and support civil war until the country is ruined and you get it for
8. “Salami-slice strategy”. It’s a process of threats and alliances
used to overcome opposition. It includes the creation of several factions
within the opposing political party, and then dismantling that party from
inside, without causing the “sliced” sides to protest.
9. “Positive shock.” A domestic operation; to save the government during
a crisis, special service provokes artificial civil conflict or sabotage,
imitation (terror), and the government takes care of the “problem.”
10. “Controlled crisis export” (see “Foreign Policy”)
11. “Sanitation border.” “Fencing” the target country by enemies
12. “Alibi.” You build a “chain” of evidence (witnesses) and move the
investigation to a dead end.
13. “Passive sabotage.” A very effective strategy used to cover up a
major action like the assassination of a President or the destruction of
several office towers. You just “do not see the bad guys” who are going
to kill the President or blow up the city. In any case you win — the
perpetrators are not sure you are watching them; you can arrest them if the
object survives or liquidate them once the object is dead. You don’t need a
big conspiracy, you just give the order to ignore certain people until their
plan materializes.
14. “Special tour.” You help the target country to “build democratic
institutions” (the government and local administrations) by sending
official crews to help. Actually, they rule the country and that’s a
“hidden occupation.”
15. “Mask.” You mask your actual global plans (reforms) by another big
action (war).

Other Strategies. Breaking Up the USSR

As an example, we can look at the strategies that were used to break up the
USSR. This was political warfare on unprecedented scale, which means very
aggressive use of political tools to achieve national objectives. It means a
constant policy of taking political actions against the vital interests of
another power. External strategies that were used to destroy the USSR
included: economic exhaustion by the arms race, dollar intervention,
prohibition to sell high-tech equipment to Soviet Union (official explanation
— they could be used for military purposes; reality — they could be used
to boost economic production), incentives to go for “dead end” economic
projects, induced to engage in a senseless war against Afghanistan,
aggressive “anti-communist” propaganda. Internal strategies used to
destroy Soviet Union included: incentives and provocations (through local
media and opposition parties) of national, religious and social conflicts;
inducement into military conversion programs; encouragement of the
disintegration of the Soviet republics under the appeal of illusory calls to
undefined values like “democracy,” “self-determination,” and
“freedom,” instigation of corruption within the Kremlin; support of
Soviet leader Gorbachev’s utopian to “plant” democracy in the USSR. As
you understand by now, planned crowds etc. were also used extensively to
force the government’s hand.

Chapter 8 . President's security.

The estimated cost of protecting the President, Vice President and their
families alone is $356 million/year. Since 1994 presidents have been
entitled to Secret Service protection for 10 years after finishing their
terms of office (previously they were protected for life,which continues to
be the case for presidents who served before 1997).

“I guess there’s always the possibility [of assassination], but that is
what the Secret Service is for.” President John Kennedy
“Trained pigs.” ”Stay ten yards away at all times.” ”If you want to
remain on this detail, get your ass over here and grab those bags!” First
Lady Hillary Clinton on the Secret Service.

Four US Presidents have been killed:

1. Abraham Lincoln.
On April 14, 1865 during a performance of “Our American Cousin” at
Ford’s Theatre, John Booth killed Abraham Lincoln by shooting him in the
back of the head. Leaping from the balcony to the stage, he broke his leg
—but escaped. Federal troops found him hiding in a barn in Virginia, where
they shot and killed him.
2. James Garfield.
On July 2, 1881 Charles Guiteau, who wanted to work for the President but
wasn’t accepted, shot James Garfield in the back at Union Station in
Washington, DC. Garfield died eighty days later. Refusing to plead not guilty
by reason of insanity, Guiteau was tried for murder, found guilty and hanged.
3. William McKinley.
On September 6, 1901 anarchist Leon Czolgosz shot William McKinley twice
during a reception at the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. He
had concealed his revolver in a bandage and fired from only two feet away.
McKinley died a week later from infection in one of the wounds. His killer
confessed that he wanted to change the government; he was executed.
The next year, the Secret Service assumed full-time responsibility for
protection of the President.
4. John F. Kennedy.
On November 22, 1963 JFK was assassinated in Dallas, Texas while campaigning,
allegedly by Lee Harvey Oswald (see later chapters).

6 US presidents were nearly killed:

1. Andrew Jackson.
On January 30, 1835 President Jackson went to the US Capitol to attend the
funeral services of Congressman Davis. As the President filed past the casket
and descended to the Capitol rotunda, Richard Lawrence, an unemployed house
painter, fired at him point blank but a bullet failed to discharge from the
gun barrel. Then Lawrence drew a second pistol and fired again, and again the
gun failed to fire. A jury found Lawrence not guilty on grounds of insanity.
2. Harry Truman.
On November 1, 1950 two Puerto Rican nationalists, Oscar Collazo and Oriselio
Torresola, attempted to assassinate President Truman, who was staying at the
time in Blair House, across the street from the White House, due to White
House renovations. They approached the house and tried to shoot their way
inside, but were killed by White House police officers. President Truman was
taking a nap upstairs.
3. Richard Nixon.
On February 22, 1974 Samuel Byck, an unemployed tire salesman with mental
problems, attempted to hijack a plane from Baltimore-Washington International
Airport. He intended to crash it into the White House hoping to kill the
President. He stole a revolver from a friend and made a bomb out of 2 gallon
jugs of gasoline and an igniter. He went to the airport, killed a police
officer there, stormed aboard the plane and killed 2 pilots after they told
him they couldn’t take off until the wheel blocks were removed. Eventually,
after Byck was shot and wounded by police officers, he committed suicide by
shooting himself in the head.
4. Gerald Ford (two attempts).
On September 5, 1975, Lynette From, a follower of a cult leader Charles
Manson, pointed a handgun at President Ford as he was shaking hands with
well-wishers at Sacramento’s Capitol Park. The weapon was loaded with 4
bullets but none was in the firing chamber. She was arrested and convicted of
attempted assassination; she’s serving life in prison.
On September 22, 1975 Sara Moore tried to assassinate President Ford outside
the St. Francis Hotel in San Francisco. A psycho with revolutionary ideas she
was once recruited by the FBI but her cover was blown. Then, in order to
prove herself with her radical friends, she attempted to shoot Ford.
The President was saved by bystander Oliver Sipple, a former Marine Corps
member who fought in Vietnam and was honorably discharged. He wrestled Sara
Moore and grabbed the gun. She fired one shot which did not hit the
President. Ford wrote a thank-you note to Sipple three days later, but never
invited him to the White House. There is speculation that he was treated
shabbily because he was alleged to be homosexual, and this severely affected
his family.
5. Ronald Reagan.
On March 30, 1981 John Hinckley Jr. shot President Reagan, his Press
Secretary James Brady, Secret Service agent Tim McCarthy and police officer
Thomas Delehanty while they were leaving the Hilton Hotel in Washington, DC.
Hinckley, a loser from a family of oil company owners, was obsessed with
actress Jodi Foster, stalking her and developing ploys to get her attention,
including by assassinating the US President. President Reagan was not hit
directly but he was wounded in the chest on a ricochet — a stray bullet
that bounced back from the bulletproof glass of the Presidential limousine
hit him in the chest. Hinckley didn’t attempt to flee and was arrested at
the scene. At the trial he was found guilty by reason of insanity and
confined at St. Elizabeth’s Hospital in Washington, DC.
6. George W. Bush.
On May 5, 2005 Vladimir Arutunyan threw a grenade at George W. Bush who was
greeting a crowd (of about 15,000) on Freedom Square, Tbilisi, Georgia (a
former Soviet republic) during an official visit. The grenade fell about 100
feet away from the tribune where the President was standing, but did not
detonate. Early in the morning, before the US President appeared, thousands
of local residents broke through the barriers and metal detectors and made
their way to the city’s central square waiting for Bush. Special agents and
police officers of Georgia could not keep the crowd back, so they removed the
barriers and let the people flow in without any inspection (!!). Arutunyan
was arrested two months later and sentenced to life in 2006.

Managing the Secret Service

The top priority in protecting the President’s life must be organized and
complete intelligence. Any information from any person from any country
concerning the President’s personal security has to be immediately
analyzed, and immediate action has to be performed. This is the first
priority for intelligence and counter-intelligence agencies and police as
well as the Secret Service. If the system is organized properly, nobody could
even get in a position to try to shoot. Of course, the safest thing is to
restrict the President’s routes to government buildings only; but he has to
travel and he has to travel abroad, too. Still, the President should leave
his Office only when he really has to.
Since the President has to be let out from time to time, the newer technique
is to restrict where the onlookers may congregate, especially those who wish
to take the opportunity to express dismay with Presidential policies. Thus we
now see the evolution of “free speech corners” so that demonstrators are
confined to specific areas far from the actual event where the President is
appearing or the route he is transiting.

Practical Protection during Presidential Appearances

1. The Secret Service must have a top-secret plan of all visits, because the
advance group has to come to the place at least a week ahead and cooperate
with the field FBI offices and police (foreign special services if it’s a
visit abroad) paying attention to extremist groups and organizations.
Officers and technicians search the place, looking for possible explosives,
radioactive, biological and chemical dangerous or poisonous stuff and
weapons; they check the walls, floors and ceilings; check air and water in
the area; install weapons and explosives detectors and stay at the place
24/7, using night vision devices, too. (Dogs are good helpers if there is any
question of explosives.) You have to check nearby houses as well (there could
be people with mental health problems or dangerous criminals. Remember, the
President must not appear in open areas close to apartment buildings. And the
President has to be able to reach the National Security Command Center at any
2. If the President has to make a speech in open area there should be at
least 3 security circles around him:
- up to 50 ft (personal bodyguards, weapons and explosives technicians)
- up to 200 ft (fast reaction anti-terror group)
- up to 1000 ft (support groups, snipers, police)
The security system includes both “open” and undercover groups (obvious
security and people who play the crowd or service — drivers, waiters,
cleaners — terrorists don’t pay attention to them, as a rule). Each group
follows its instructions strictly and avoids mess (personal bodyguards are in
charge of immediate protection, anti-terror group has to fight and chase
terrorists, etc.). Extra people always mean extra danger, so the most secure
situation is when extra people have no access to the President at all and
can’t get into any of three circles. The guest list has to be triple
checked to exclude anybody with criminal records who could compromise the
leader. Reporters are there too and you have to tell them exactly where to
wait (they have to be checked and kept separate after that), where to stand
and what pictures (poses) to take; the President can’t look stupid or
funny. Inside the building watch when people applaud, stand up and sit down
— terrorists prefer these situations to shoot or blow explosives.
When President moves through or along the crowd, “cut” it into pieces,
guard him in circles, watch people who are carrying any objects (no flowers!)
— they must not approach him; watch people with hands in their pockets,
those who try to touch him, shake his hand, pass any object (gift, picture,
photo). They must not be allowed to do that. If anybody behaves in a
suspicious way, hold him tight (so he can’t take out a gun) and “screw”
him out of the crowd. In case of any attempt push the President to the
ground, cover him and shoot immediately. Then leave the place as soon as
possible and bring him to the hospital for a check up (even if he’s OK).

Frequent Security Mistakes

The worst one - Secret Service and other agencies get inadequate
intelligence information on a possible attempt or overlook important
information, including anonymous letters and mail from psychos. (They must
have information, even if it’s “inside” the White House conspiracy.
Agents have to memorize pictures of all the most dangerous persons who are
wanted in the United States and people who were involved in attempted attacks
on top politicians worldwide.)
The next two — extraneous people are allowed access to the President or
extraneous people stay in the area close enough to shoot the President. In
1997, a France Press reporter took a picture of the Clintons dancing during
their vacation on the Virgin Islands — they were dressed for the Caribbean
and were happy in their privacy. Luckily, it was just a reporter, but what if
it had been a sniper? What was the Secret Service doing? Then the picture was
published worldwide and Hillary Clinton was furious - she didn’t look
attractive at all.
The last two major errors occur when (1) you can’t identify the potential
terrorists in the crowd and (2) you react too slow or waste time evacuating
the President.

Bonus. I saved Hillary Clinton

On August 9, 2006 at 8 A.M. I saw strange green flyers inside the Lefrak
City, Queens buildings saying that: "State Senator John Sabini invites you to
meet U.S. Senator Hillary Clinton on the issues. Lefrak City (by the pool).
Wednesday, August 9, 2 P.M. Call Sabini for Senate at 718-651-8190 if you
have any questions".

Do you know what’s Lefrak City ? It’s 20 old brick 18-floor projects for
poor African-Americans, Latinos, and Russians. The most dangerous area in
Queens and the New York State, stuffed with street gangs, crack
cocaine,heroine, prostitutes and illegal guns. Three years ago 100 NYPD
officers stormed the ghetto and arrested 13 most ruthless gangsters who
terrorized people for years (another 10 are still wanted), confiscated guns,
ammunition, drugs and $2.5 million in cash.
On August 1, 2006 NYS Senator John Sabini delivered a speech at Lefrak City
community meeting at St. Paul’s Church demanding new, severe state and
federal laws to control illegal weapons. And now, the same Sabini invites
everybody to meet in person a former First Lady, the U.S. Senator Hillary
Clinton at some open playground. What’s that ? A sweet candy for
terrorists? A regular stupidity?

I saw flyers at 8 A.M. , and in two minutes I was already walking to the
place – just to make sure Mrs. Clinton, who saved my family, will meet the
voters guarded by the "best of the best" – the U.S. Secret Service.
I was sure they already watch the area for the last 24 hours.
I was sure the access to the area is restricted.
I was sure that one week before the event local police instructed the secret
sources to stay at alert and report any suspicious activity and people who
had or tried to purchase illegal guns.
I was sure bad guys and aggressive psychos were isolated temporarily or kept
under control at least.
I was sure technicians checked the air, soil and water (in the open pool) for
radioactivity and toxic substances, looked for explosives and brought a
specially trained dog.
I was sure there was no access to a single roof and they’ve installed a
metal detector to check VIP and other guests.
I was sure they had a double checked guest list. Kill me, I was sure the
Secret Service would never let any bad guy approach Hillary Clinton. I was

At 8.30 A.M.,six hours before the meeting, I came there to check the place
and estimate the threats.
Nothing and nobody around.
The place was a heaven for terrorists:
- a circle of six 18-floor-1500-window buildings (such meetings in the open
areas close to residential buildings are strictly f o r b i d d e n )
- a playground
- an open stage under a small roof (no walls)
- barbeque place
- a pool

And six hours to get ready for assassination:
- observe the place and then plan assassination
- install a mine under a stage
- try a silenced sniper rifle out of any window or from the roof and make
necessary corrections
- bring and place the whole army of terrorists all over the place

I've checked one of the building - free access to the roof. Perfect
conditions for a sniper.

At 11 A.M. two girls, three assistants and free "Pepsi" appeared out of
nowhere. 2 cops – in and out. No restriction. Not even a "Don’t cross"
At 1 P.M. about 500 people came to the playground – retired old men and
women, homeless alcoholics,drug addicts, kids,teens and reporters.
At 2.30 P.M. people surrounded the playground and screamed like crazy when
Hillary Clinton finally appeared among them and tried to make her way through
the crowd. Anybody could touch or hit her - 2 cops and 2 Secret Service
agents just smiled happily. Then she got to the stage encircled by a wild ,
absolutely uncontrolled crowd. One agent was standing behind her, another one
– at the stairs. No security. I had to move close to the stage – the
situation was unpredictable and I could help to protect Mrs. Clinton with my
10 years of KGB experience and 2 years of "The Nabat" anti-terror group.
She made a 15 minutes speech and then I’ve witnessed a total chaos –
still on the stage, she tried to shake hands and people went wild; somebody
gave her flowers (absolutely unacceptable thing), somebody asked her to hold
a baby to make pictures; people screamed and pushed each other. I had to ask
people to move back and some did. I was at the stage, right at the middle and
people couldn't reach Hillary Clinton easily, some women tried to push me - I
was laughing and playing a nice guy, but didn't leave my spot.
Agents paid no attention – they were slowly chewing gums, obviously proud
of their James Bond style sunglasses. Poor Sabini asked people to move away
– nobody cared. Only when some young girls jumped up on the stage, police
officer reluctantly restricted the place with a yellow tape – the Secret
Service guy looked at him insurprise. Then Hillary turned over to talk to
somebody on the stage , and the agent turned his back to the crowd, too – I
couldn’t believe it.
At 3.30 she left the playground and had to move through the huge crowd again.
I was next to her pretending I'm making video.
She was lucky - God loves her. I love her too.


“The law of the strongest is the only international law.” Mikhail

Chapter 1. Commmander-in –Chief.

The president loves war, not peace, because:

a) Successful military engagement enhances presidential popularity. All five
Presidents who have run for re-election during a war have won.
b) A quick war improves the electoral fortunes of the president’s political
c) War is good business, at least if you win, and at least if it does not
drag on too long. It stimulates demand for a variety of manufactured goods
and services (even if they are all destined to go down the drain) and is a
powerful stimulus to all fields of scientific endeavor.
d) War provides opportunities to direct lucrative contracts to companies and
individuals who helped get the President elected, or who can help in the
future; and to the constituents of select Senators and Congressmen for the
same reasons.
e) War usually pleases the Joint Chiefs (and their full support is important
f) War keeps down the unemployment figures.
g) War is just one detail in a vast ongoing game of international strategy
for domination; it is as much a financial operation as anything else.
h) War unifies the country, and keeps the public’s attention away from
issues that might be controversial.
i) War provides a rationale for the implementation of tighter legislation and
the removal of certain freedoms that would never be tolerated in peacetime

At the same time, war is limited by political decisions and by public
opinion. Initially the use of US forces spurs a “rally around the flag”
effect that lifts the President’s popularity and builds up support for the
troops. But the American people are casualty averse and the positive effect
lasts only until the number of casualties and the length of the engagement
begin to wear on the public. Continued military action will then have a
deleterious effect on presidential approval ratings as the war becomes
increasingly unpopular.

In the long run, the destruction of such vast quantities of resources, and
the diversion of so much of the nation’s productive capacity away from
actual goods and services for the real economy, are obviously immensely
deleterious. Eventually, these downside effects will begin to dawn on even
the best-manipulated electorate.

Duties of the Commander-in-Chief

1. As President you are Commander-in-Chief, but your job is political
decision making, not war management. You:
- lead all federal and state armed forces
- lead the US defense policy
- suggest a budget for the armed forces
- choose the leaders of the armed forces
- decide where the armed forces will be in the world
- abide by all laws about armed forces
- direct all war efforts
- protect the lives of Americans living in other countries

During wartime you have special powers and Congress must agree to any
actions president takes, including:
- placing limits on prices
- limiting the sale of food, clothes and other items
- having a control on war-related businesses
- limiting freedoms for the period of war

SIOP or Presidential nuclear command

The most classified business you will be briefed on about after you’re
elected is the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP), which contains the
possible US nuclear responses to a variety of attacks. Here’s the procedure
of Presidential nuclear command:

If the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) detects evidence of a
possible nuclear attack against the United States, NORAD, the Strategic Air
Command (SAC), the Pentagon’s National Military Command Center and the
Alternative National Military Command Center begin procedural steps to verify
the authenticity of the attack. If NORAD and other units determine that the
attack is real, you are informed of the attack and its characteristics. Then
you have to consult with the Defense Secretary and Joint Chiefs of Staff and
consider SIOP options. If a nuclear attack option is chosen, you have to
transmit the launch codes that unlock the nuclear weapons and assure the
officers in charge of the weapons that the launch order is authentic. You may
also give authority to launch nuclear weapons to the Secretary of Defense.

Chapter 2. Strategy and Tactics.

2.1 Strategy

Strategy is the planning of campaigns, selecting the aims and solving the
logistics problems connected with moving men and resources to their battle
positions. Actually, strategy is how you use battles to win a war, while a
tactic is how you use troops to win a battle. There’s only one grand
strategy — to win the war; and the President is very important here as a
politician — he gives the orders to freeze the enemy’s assets in American
(and allies’) banks and he builds up the international coalition. American
military strategy in the 21st century has to be a global strategy, which
means coalition building. We will not discuss nuclear strategy and tactics in
depth, because we all hope that for the next 25 years at least the practical
use of nuclear weapons will remain a matter of science fiction, something to
hint at and suggest as a threat, but not to actually try. Please do not prove
me wrong.

2.2 Tactics

Military tactics rest on fourteen elements:

1.Identification or selection and maintenance of aim (ability to define and
locate the opponent). Tactics should be directed to achieve a particular
outcome such as the capture of a bridge or a hill. Once an aim is
identified, time, resources and effort are expended to achieve it; therefore,
these are wasted if the aim is frequently changed.
2.Administration (planning and analysis). Ask what (type of operation), when
(time), where (the assigned area), how (the use of assigned assets), why
(the purpose). Mission analysis includes : mission, enemy(intelligence),
terrain (and weather), troops, time available between receiving the mission
and the deadline for having completed it (time is the most critical resource,
especially during daylight hours), deception, civilian considerations.
3.Concentration of efforts (against the enemy, where he is known to be
weakest). Remember, he who defends everything defends nothing, he who attacks
everywhere will capture nothing.
4. Security (intelligence and counter-intelligence)
5.Economy of force (to make the best use of all resources and in order to
create and maintain a reserve).
6.Force protection (dispersing, camouflage, deception, electronic counter
measures, use of fortifications — entrenchments, over head protection,
foxholes, revetting, vanguard). Dispersal of force is a very necessary
practice in modern warfare where firepower is precise and overwhelming.
Camouflage is not just special uniform; outlines have to be broken up,
textures disguised and reflective surfaces dulled. Camouflage techniques
also extend beyond the visible spectra that the human eye normally uses, as
the same principles now need to work in infrared light, against starlight
scopes and radar frequencies. Also you have to use terrain, natural (river)
and man made obstacles and barriers , like wire anti-vehicle ditches and
“berms” (knife edges).
7. Isolation (when the opponent is denied the ability to gain outside
resources and assistance).
8. Suppression (the process of denying the opponent the freedom of movement
and ultimately maneuver)
9. Maneuver (combination of movement and firepower to achieve a position of
advantage which means the placing of strength against an opponent’s
10. Flexibility (a capability to react to changing circumstances, especially
by mobility, the rapid switching of fire-power and arrangement of sufficient
resources). Don’t forget to keep about a quarter of the forces back in
reserve to exploit new opportunities, or react quickly to reverses and
unexpected developments – a battalion might keep a company back, the
brigade might keep a battalion back. Here I would also talk about exploiting
prevailing weather (bad weather cut down on the chance of detection) and
exploiting night using night vision equipment.
11. Cooperation (with allies through secure links)
12. Offensive action (to win the initiative and throw an enemy off balance)
13. Destruction (physical destruction of resources or destruction of the
opponent’s will)
14. Troops motivation.

2.3 The U.S. principles of military art:

1.Objective (direct every military operation towards a clearly defined,
decisive and attainable objective. The ultimate military purpose of war is
the destruction of the enmy’s ability and will to fight).
2.Offensive (seize, retain and exploit initiative. Offensive action is the
most effective and decisive way to attain a clearly defined common objective.
Offensive operations are the means by which a military force seizes and holds
the initiative while mainaining freedom of action and achieving decisive
results. This is fundamentally true across all levels of war).
3.Mass (concentrate combat power at the decisive place and time.
Synchronizing all the elements of combat power where they will have decisive
effect on an enemy force in a short period of time is to chieve mass. Massing
effects, rather than concentrating forces, can enable numerically inferior
forces to achieve decisive results, while limiting exposure to enemy fire).
4.Economy of force ( employ all combat power available in the most effective
way possible; allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts.
Economy of force is the judicious employment and distribution of forces. No
part of the force should ever be left without purpose. The allocation of
available combat power to such tasks as limited ttacks, defense, delays,
eception, or even retrograde operations is measured in order to ahieve mass
elsewhere at the decisive pont and time of battlefield).
5.Maneuver (place the enemy in a disadvantageous position through the
flexible application of combat power. Maneuver is the movement of forces in
relation to the enemy to gain positional advantage. Effective maneuver keeps
the enemy off balance and protects the force. It is used to exploit
successes, to preserve freedom of action, an to reduce vulnerability. It
continually poses new problems for the enemy y rendering his actions
ineffective, eventually leading to defeat).
6.Unity of command (for every objective, ensure unity of effort under one
responsible commander. At all levels of war, employment of military forces in
a maner that masses combat power toward a common objective requires unity of
command and unity of effort. Unity of command means that all the forces are
under one responsible commander. It requires a single commander with the
requisite authority to direct all forces in pursuit of a unified purpose).
7.Security (never permit the enemy to acquire an unexpected advantage.
Security enhances freedom of action by reducing vulnerability to hostile acts
, influence or surprise. Security results from the measures taken by a
commander to protect his forces. Knowledge and understanding of enemy
strategy, tactics, doctrine, and staff planning improve the detailed planning
of adequate security measures).
8.Surprise (strike the enemy at a time, at a place or in a manner for which
he is unprepared. Surprise can decisively shift the balance of combat power.
By seeking surprise, forces can achieve success well out of proportion to the
effort expended. Surprise can be in tempo, size of force, direction or
location of main effort and timing. Deception can aid the probability of
achieving surprise).
9.Simplicity (prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and clear, concise orders
to ensure thorough understanding. Everything in war is very simple, but
simple thing is difficult. To the uninitiated, military operations are not
difficult. Simplicity contributes to successful operations. Simple plans and
clear, concise orders minimize misunderstanding and confusion. Other factors
bing equal, parsimony is to be prefered).

2.4 The Russian principles of military art:

1. Combat readiness.
2. Surprise.
3. Aggressivnes and decisiveness.
4. Persistence and nitiative.
5. Combined arms oordination and joint operations.
6. Decisive concentration of forces.
7. Deep battle or dep operations.
8. Informatin warfare.
9. Exploitation of moral-political factors.
10. Firm and continuous command and control.
11. Comprehensive comat support.
12. Timely restoration of reserves and combat potential.

2.5 Chinese principles of military art.

Because the military doctrines of the Pople’s Liberation Army are in a
state of flux, it is difficult to give a capsule summary of a single doctrine
which is expounded with the PLA. Rather the PLA is currently influenced by
three doctrinal schools which both conflict and complement each other. These
three schools are:
1.People’s war ( derived from the Maoist notion of warfare as a war in
which the entire society is mobilized.
2.Regional war (envisions future wars to be limited in scope and confined to
the Chinese border).
3.Revolution in military affairs ( a school of thought which believes that
technology is transforming the basis of warfare and that these technological
changes present both extreme dangers and possibilities for the Chinese

In recent years, “local war under high-tech conditions” has been

Chapter 3. Staying Alive

There is no and there will be no such creature as the “soldier of
tomorrow” loaded with computers who doesn’t have to be skillful on his
own; this is a fantasy of smart idiots wasting federal money, who never have
been under fire amidst the hell of actual combat. Of course, technology has
changed the character of modern war, but as the insurgents in Iraq have
taught us, the rest of the world doesn’t have to reach our level in
military technology to fight — they can conduct urban guerilla warfare with
whatever is at hand.
For a hundred years to come the best way to survive will still be to dig up
a big, deep trench. The best computer is a loaded submachine gun, and the
best techniques are:
- Firepower + Speed = Low Casualties
- the minor tactic of infantry: “fire and movement” — firing and
moving, often in pairs, when one soldier fires to suppress or neutralize the
enemy whilst the other moves either toward the enemy or to a more favorable
- basic drill (if you are under “effective fire”): run five-six steps,
drop to the ground or into cover, crawl a few yards (or move under cover),
observe, shoot identified targets within effective range, move, observe and
shoot until you get another order;
- “overwatch”: one small unit supports another while they execute fire
and movement patrolling: reconnaissance patrol (used to collect information
by observing the enemy and working with informants, fighting patrol (to raid
or ambush a specific enemy not holding the ground; you need a platoon for a
fighting patrol), clearing patrol (to ensure that newly occupied defensive
position is secure), standing patrol (to provide early warning, security or
to piquet some geographical feature such as dead ground).

3.1 How to fight in :

Successful desert operations require adaptation to heat and lack of water as
temperatures may vary 136 degrees Fahrenheit in the deserts of Mexico and
Libya to the bitter cold of winter in the Gobi (East Asia). Terrain varies
from mountain and rocky plateau to sandy or dune terrain. The key to success
in desert operations is mobility, though movement can easily be detected
because of sand and dust signatures left due to the loose surface material
(in an actual engagement, this may not be all that bad because a unit is
obscured from direct fire while advancing, but the element of surprise may be
lost). Moving at night is the best choice.
Attack helicopters are extremely useful there due to their ability to
maneuver and apply firepower over a large battlefield in a short time.
Suppression of enemy air defense has a high priority during offensive
operations. The destruction of enemy antitank capabilities must also have a
high priority due to the shock potential of armor in the desert.
No panic, no smoking, no alcohol (it dehydrates the body). Don’t drink much
liquid. Keep the gun clean from sand. Kill anybody for water and watch for
water signs, like animal tracks and the birds’ flight patterns.

In the jungle you’ll fight, most probably, guerrilla, not conventional
forces. In general, jungle enemies can be expected to follow these tactical
principles: maintain the offensive, stay close to the enemy to reduce the
effects of his firepower, infiltrate at every opportunity, operate during
periods of limited visibility, use surprise tactics (see Special Forces).
Remember that trees and foliage reduce the effective range of your weapons.

In Latin America the most likely threat for the US are insurgent leftist
movements. In Africa many of the conflicted factions struggle among
themselves, due to political or ancient tribal differences, differences that
may be stirred up by rival leaders in the “modern” political state, who
in turn may be working (knowingly or not) in the interests of other, more
developed, powers who benefit from the chaos. (These factions consist
primarily of heavily armed with mortars and artillery guerrilla groups. There
are active guerrilla movements in Southeast Asia, too).
The worst things (often exaggerated) in jungle combat are fear,
malaria-carrying mosquitoes and snakes; also heat, thick vegetation and
rugged terrain, especially for those who carry heavy weapons. If bitten by a
snake, follow these steps: remain calm but act swiftly, and chances of
survival are good; immobilize the affected part in a position below the level
of the heart; place a lightly constricted band 5 to 10 cm (2 to 4 inches)
closer to the heart than the site of the bite (reapply the constricting band
ahead of the swelling if it moves up the arm or leg). The constricting band
should be placed tightly enough to halt the flow of blood in surface vessels,
but not so tight as to stop the pulse; do not attempt to cut open the bite or
suck out venom; seek medical help (if possible, the snake’s head with 5 to
10 cm of its body should be taken to the medics for identification and a
proper choice of anti venom).
The thick foliage and few rods make ambush a constant danger, and that’s
why point, flank and rear security teams have to keep a force from being
ambushed. These teams must be far enough away from the main body that if they
make contact the whole force will not be engaged (use dogs, too). Successful
jungle attacks usually combine dispersion and concentration. For example, a
rifle company may move out in a dispersed formation so that it can find the
enemy. Once contact is made, its platoons close on the enemy from all
directions. Remember, jungle areas are ideal for infiltration because dense
vegetation and rugged terrain limit the enemy’s ability to detect movement.
On the other side, it’s difficult to detect the approach of an attacking
enemy for the same reason. In the jungle the key weapons are infantry small
arms, mortars and artillery. Do not use insect repellant when on ambush,
because the enemy can smell you before he hits the killing zone. Have each
soldier make field expedient aiming stakes for the ambush site – this will
keep distribution of ire even throughout the killing zone. Do not wera
helmets: they degrade your hearing and reduce your peripheral vision. Take
listening halts at least 15 minutes every hour. Patrol 500 meters in front of
the unit. Carry iodine tablets.
Due to the limited visibility of the jungle, the hasty attack is the most
likely scenario. React quickly with every weapon that you can bring to bear
as soon as you contact the enemy. Gain immediate fire superiority and keep
it. Do not wait for a clear visual target to open fire; fire at smoke, muzzle
flashes, or by sound, use grenades immediately, otherwise, the enemy will
gain the superiority.
Be aware of stay-behind snipers as you approach the objective. Night raids
are generally not practical.

Far North
Be ready for long hours of daylight and dust in summer, long nights and the
extreme cold in winter, and the mud and morass of the transition periods of
spring and autumn. The disrupting effects of natural phenomena, the scarcity
of roads and railroads, the vast distances and isolation, and occasionally
the lack of current maps combine to affect adversely but not totally restrict
mobility, fire power, and communications.
Navigation is tricky in the Arctic. You’re near the magnetic pole,so
compass readings may be erratic:take more than one, and average them out.Use
the shadow tip method or use the sun and stars to show you in which direction
north and other points of the compass lie. Nature gives you some clues,too:
-a solitary evergreen tree will always have more growth on its south side
- bark on poplar and birch trees will always be lighter in colour on the
south-facing side
- trees and bushes will be bent in the direction that the wind normally
blows, so if you know the direction of the prevailing wind you can work out
north and south
- the snow on the south side of the ridges tends to be more granular than on
the north
- snowdrills usually are on the downwind side of protruding objects like
rocks, trees of high banks. By determining the cardinal points of the compass
and from them the direction of the drifts, the angle at which you cross them
will serve as a check point in maintaining a course. In the southern
hemisphere the opposite polarity applies.
Crossing thin ice: one man at a time; take your hands out of the loops on
your ski poles; put your equipment over one shoulder only, so you can shrug
it off; loosen your bindings on your skis or snowshoes; think about
distributing your weight by lying flat and crawling; bear in mind thicknesses
of ice snd their corresponding loadbearing capabilities: 2 inches support 1
man, 4 inches – 2 men side by side,10 inches – a half-ton vehicle.
The most suitable time for ground operations is from midwinter to early
spring before the breakup of the ice. Early winter, after the formation of
ice, is also favorable. Tracks in the snow, and fog created by a heat source,
complicate the camouflage of positions. The blending of terrain features,
lack of navigational aids, fog and blowing snow all combine to make land
navigation extremely difficult. And don’t eat the snow, and don’t put
weapons on the snow (especially after shooting).

Mountain campaigns are characterized by a series of separately fought
battles for the control of dominating ridges and heights that overlook roads,
trails, and other potential avenues of approach. Operations generally focus
on smaller-unit tactics of squad, platoon, company, and battalion size.
Attacks in extremely rugged terrain are often dismounted, with airborne and
air assaults employed to seize high ground or key terrain and to encircle or
block the enemy’s retreat. The mountainous terrain usually offers greater
advantage to the defender and frontal attacks, even when supported by heavy
direct and indirect fires, have a limited chance of success (the best thing
is to use the envelopment). Infantry is the basic maneuver force in
mountains. Mechanized infantry is confined to valleys and foothills, but
their ability to dismount and move on foot enables them to reach almost
anywhere in the area. The objective in mountainous areas of operations is
normally to dominate terrain from which the enemy can be pinned down and
If you’re not a sniper, you have nothing to do there. Use grenades
carefully (in winter time there’s too much snow around). Keep in mind that
low atmospheric pressure considerably increases the evaporation of water in
storage batteries and vehicle cooling systems, and impairs cylinder breathing
(consequently, vehicles expand more fuel and lubricant, and engine power is
reduced by four to six percent for every 1,000-meters (3,300 ft) increase in
elevation above sea level. You have to be used to the lack of oxygen. And
don’t drink or smoke while climbing. Be always ready to shoot. Watch open
places and roads. Go parallel course when you chase the enemy. Shoot first if
you see cut trees on your way.

3.2 Wounds

Don’t eat before the assault; if there’s food in your system, you’ll
die if wounded in the belly.

If you or another soldier is wounded, first aid must be given at once and the
first step is to apply the four life-saving measures:
1. Clear the airway, check and restore breathing and heartbeat. If he is not
breathing, place him on his back and kneel beside his head, clear his airway
and start mouth-to-mouth resuscitation and if necessary start external heart
2. Stop the bleeding. Look for both entry and exit wounds, as a bullet
usually makes a smaller wound where it enters than where it exits.
3. Prevent shock. Warning signs of shock are restlessness, thirst, pale skin
and rapid heartbeat. Loosen the casualty’s clothing at the neck, waist and
wherever it restricts circulation. Keep him warm. Reassure him by being calm
and self-confident. Put him in a comfortable position.
4. Dress and bandage the wound.

Attention: majority of the soldiers with serious wounds demonstrate the
symptoms of posttraumatic stress syndrome, like re-experiencing the combat
through vivid memories and flashbacks,feeling “emotionally numb”,
diminished interest in performing military tasks, crying
uncontrollably, isolating himself from friends, relying increasingly on
alcohol or drugs to get
through the day, feeling extremely moody, irritable, angry , suspicious or
frightened, having
difficulty falling or staying asleep, sleeping too much and experiencing
nightmares, feeling
guilty about surviving the combat while many other soldiers were killed,
feeling fear and
sense of doom about the future. To cope with the syndrome the soldier has to
recognize his
feelings about the situation and talk to others about his fears, be willing
to listen to other soldiers, who coped with the syndrome, and to understand
that these feelings are a normal temporary response to an abnormal situation.

Chapter 4. Small unit tactics

4.1 Four F’s

Find – locate the enemy
Fix – pin them down with suppressing fire
Flank - send soldiers to the enemy’s sides ( not the rear, as your troops
will then fire upon each other).
Finish – eliminate all enemy combatants

4.2. Overwatch.

Overwatch is the state of one small unit or military vehicle supporting
another unit, while they are executing fire and movement tactics. An
overwatching or supporting unit has to take a position where it can observe
the terrain ahead, especially likely enemy positions, and this allows to
provide effective covering fire for advancing friendly units. An ideal
overwatch position provides cover for the unit and unobstructed lines of
fire. It may be on a height of the ground or at the top of a ridge, where a
vehicle may be able to adopt a hull-down position. If the overwatching unit
is in a position to fire over advancing friendly units, great care must be
taken not to let fire fall short. The friendly units should be within tracer
burnout (the range at which tracer rounds are visible). Overwatch can be
performed by platoons during company fire and movement, by individual armored
vehicles (especially, tanks) or infantry sections, in platoon fir and
movement, or even by fireteams or individual soldiers, in the final stages of
assault. Overwatch tactics and firing at the short halt were especially
important in armored warfare before modern tank gun stabilizers were
developed, since moving tanks were unlikely to hit any target. Even in the
most modern tanks, however, the crews can locate and hit targets better when
at halt.
Bounding overwatch , also known as leapfrogging or simply bounding, is the
military tactic of alternating movement of coordinated units to allow, if
necessary , suppressive fire in support of offensive forward movent or
defensive disengagement. As members of a unit take an overwatch posture,
other members advance to cover; these two groups continually switch roles as
they close with the enemy. This process may be done by “leapfrogging” by
fireteams, but is usually done within fireteams along a squad/platoon battle
line to simulate an overwhelming movement towards the enemy and make it more
difficult for the enemy to distinguish specific targets.
Example: A squad (2 fireteams) in an urban combat zone must advance to a
building 100 feet away, crossing an intersection they believe might be in
enemy rifle sights from elevated buildings. If the team simply made a
run-for-it, they expose themselves to potential enemy fire without
protection. So, one fireteam takes an overwatch position while the other
team bounds ( a bond is a 3-5 second rush) to a new covered position. This
way there is always an overwatch team that can react instantaneously to enemy
fire (the bounding team would have to stop, take over , locate the enemy and
aim before they could return fire). Once the covered position is reached by
the bounding team, they take up overwatch positions and the other team then
becomes the bounding team. By using bounding overwatch, this unit is able to
move effectively through a hostile urban street and intersection, without
unnecessary exposing themselves to enemy fire. If enemy contact is made, the
overwatch team opens fire and the unit takes up a process called “fire and
maneuver” which is very like bounding overwatch in that teams alternate
firing and maneuvering. During fire and movement maneuver, the commander
takes more direct control of team movements and positions.

4.3 Center peel

Center peel or “peel” tactic is specifically designed for situations
where smaller groups of infantry withdraw from engagement of a much larger
force; it’s a sloped or diagonal retreat from the enemy, a trick designed
with human psychology in mind. It begins with an infantry unit facing off
with a large force of enemies. Once the command is called, the soldiers
implement a battle line formation facing into the enemy’s midst. The
soldiers then begin to use suppressing fire to delay the enemy’s attack and
advance. Depending on the direction of the retreat, the second to last
soldier on the farmost end, opposite the retreating direction, calls out,
“Peel 1”. Now, the infantryman next to him, on the end of the line,
ceases fire, works his way behind the line towards the other side, takes a
position one meter diagonally back from the farmost soldier on this side, and
resumes suppressing fire. Then, the process repeats with the commands being
simplified to “Peel” , the 1 only there to signify the actual start of
the tactic, and continues until the party has safely disengaged the target.
The slanting motion of the tactic gives the impression of increasing numbers
of infantry joining the battle, a psychological move designed to demoralize
the opposition. The slanting motion also has the benefit of keeping open
one’s field of fire. Retreating directly backwards would put the soldier
too closely behind his own men, severely limiting his field of fire.

4.4 Patrolling

Patrolling is another tactic. Small groups or individual units are deployed
from a larger formation to achieve a specific objective and then return. The
tactic of patrolling may be applied to ground troops, armored units and
combat aircraft. The duration of a patrol will vary from few hours to several
weeks depending on the nature of the objective and the type of units
involved. The most common objective is to collect information by carrying out
a reconnaissance patrol. Such a patrol remains covert and observe an enemy
without being detected. Other reconnaissance patrols are overt, especially
those that interact with the civilian population .A fighting patrol is a
group with sufficient size (platoon or company) and resources to raid or
ambush a specific enemy. It primarily differs from an attack in that the aim
is not to hold ground.
A clearing patrol is a brief patrol around a newly occupied defensive
position in order to ensure that the immediate area is secure. Clearing
patrols are often undertaken on the occupation of a location and during stand
to in the transition from night to day routine and vice versa.A standing
patrol is a small static patrol intended to provide early warning, security
or to piquet some geographical feature, such as dead ground. A reconnaissance
patrol is a small patrol , whose main mission is the gathering of

Chapter 5. Sniper

Military snipers are usually deployed in two-men sniper teams consisting of a
shooter and spotter – they take turns in order to avoid eye fatigue. Sniper
missions include reconnaissance and surveillance, counter-sniper, killing
enemy commanders, selecting targets of opportunity and destruction of
military equipment.

5.1 Common mistakes
The sniper has a tendency to watch the target instead of his aiming point. He
may jerk or flinch at the moment his weapon fires because he thinks he must
fire now ( this can be overcome through practice on a live-fire range). He
may hurry and thus forget to apply wind as needed. Windage must be calculated
for moving targets just as for stationary targets, and failure to do so when
squiring a lead will result in a miss. NEVER fire from the edge of a wood
line – you should fire from a position inside the wood line (in the shade
of shadows). DO NOT cause overhead movement of trees, bushes or tall grasses
by rubbing against them; move very slowly. Do not use trails, roads or
footpaths, avoid built-up and populated areas and areas of heavy enemy
guerrilla activity.

5.2 Position selection
Your position must match the following requirements: maximum fields of fire
and observation of the target area, concealment from enemy observation,
covered routes into and out of the position, located no closer than 300
meters from the target area, a natural or man-made obstacle between the
position and the target area. Avoid positions that are on a point or crest of
prominent terrain features, close to isolated objects, at bends or ends of
roads, trails or streams, in populated areas, unless it’s required. Your
location must appear to the enemy to be the least likely place you are in (
under logs in a deadfall area, tunnels bored from one side of a knoll to the
other, swamps, deep shadows, inside rubble piles.
Urban terrain is perfect for a sniper, and positions can range from inside
attics to street-level positions in basements. Shooting through loopholes in
barricaded windows are preferred. Positions in attics are also effective, and
you have to remove the shingles and cuts out of loopholes in the roof. DO NOT
locate positions against contrasting background or in prominent buildings
that automatically draw attention. Never fire close to a loophole, always
back away from the hole as far as possible to hide the muzzle flash and to
scatter the sound of the weapon when it fires. You may stay in a different
room than the loophole; you can make a hole through a wall to connect the
rooms and fire from inside one room. Do not fire from one position, and try
to construct more than one position. Inside the room cover the windows with
carpets or blankets to avoid silhouetting. Make escape routes through the
holes knocked into the floor or ceiling; carpet or furniture placed over
escape holes or replaced ceiling tiles will conceal them until needed. Firing
from inside the attic around a chimney or other structure helps prevent enemy
observation and fire.
The second floor of a building is usually the best location for the
position, as it presents minimal dead space but provides you more protection
since passerby can’t easily locate it.

5.3 Key targets.
Snipers ( that’s your #1 target), dog tracking teams ( shoot the dog’s
handler first and that confuses the dog a lot), officers, vehicle commanders
and drivers, communications personnel, weapon crews, optics on vehicles,
communication and radar equipment, weapon computer-guided systems.

5.4 Range estimation.
An object of regular outline, such as a house, appears closer than one of
irregular outline, such as a clump of trees. A target that contrasts with its
background appears to be closer than it actually is. A partly exposed target
appears more distant that it actually is. Distant targets are usually
overestimated. Observing over smooth terrain, such as sand, water or snow
causes the observer to underestimate distant targets. Looking downhill, the
target appears father away; looking uphill, the target appears closer. The
more clear a target can be seen, the closer it appears. When the sun is
behind you, the target appears to be closer. When the sun is behind the
target, it’s more difficult to see it and it appears to be farther away.

5.5 Target indicators .
Sound . Most noticeable at night and caused by movement, equipment rattling
,or talking. Small noises may be dismissed as natural, but talking not.
Movement. Most noticeable at daytime. Quick or jerky movement will be
detected faster than slow movement. The human eye is attracted to movement.
Improper camouflage. Shine, outline, contrast with the ground.Disturbance of

5.6 "Golden" rules

1. Train your muscles to snap to the standard position for shooting, to
squeeze the trigger straight back with the ball of your finger to avoid
jerking the gun sideways.
Train yourself to shoot while you stand, sit, lie, walk, run, jump, fall
down; shoot at voices, shoot in a dark room, different weather and distance,
day and night; shoot one object and a group; use one gun, two guns, gun and
submachine gun (some doctrines train a sniper to breathe deeply before
shooting, then hold their lungs empty while he lines up and takes his shot;
other go further, teaching a sniper to shoot between heartbeats to minimize
barrel motion)
2. Camouflage yourself ten times before you make a single shot. Position
yourself in a building (no rooftops or churches!), which offers a long-range
fields of fire and all-round observation. Don’t stay in places with heavy
traffic! Use unusual angles of approach and frequent slow movement to prevent
accurate counter-attacks.
3. Move slowly to prevent accurate counter-attack, don’t be a mark yourself
4. Kill officers and military leaders first (Attention, officers: don’t
walk in front of your soldiers!)
5. Use suppressive fire to cover a retreat
6. Use rapid fire when the squad attempts a rescue
7. Shoot helicopters, turbine disks of parked jet fighters, missile guidance
packages, tubes or wave guides of radar sets
8. At distances over 300 m attempt body shots, aiming at the chest; at lesser
distances attempt head shots (the most effective range is 300 to 600 meters).
Police snipers who generally engage at much shorter distances may attempt
head shots to ensure the kill (in instant-death hostage situations they shoot
for the cerebellum, a part of the brain that controls voluntary movement that
lies at the base of the skull).
9. Shoot from flanks and rear
10. Never approach the body until you shoot it several times
11. Careful: the object could be wearing a bulletproof vest
12. It’s important to get to the place, but it’s more important to get
out alive
13. Remember, in hot weather bullets travel higher, in cold — lower; a
silencer reduces the maximum effective range of the weapon. Wind poses the
biggest problem — the stronger the wind, the more difficult it is to hold
the rifle steady and gauge how it will affect the bullet’s trajectory. (You
must be able to classify the wind and the best method is to use the clock
system. With you at the center of the clock and the target at 12 o’clock,
the wind is assigned into three values: full, half and no value. Full value
means that the force of the wind will have a full effect on the flight of the
bullet, and these winds come from 3 and 9 o’clock. Half value means that a
wind at the same speed, but from 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10 and 11 o’clock, will
move the bullet only half as much as a full-value wind. No value means that a
wind from 6 or 12 o’clock will have little or no effect on the flight of
the bullet). Shooting uphill or downhill can require more adjustment due to
the effects of gravity. For moving targets, the point of aim is in front of
the target ( it’s called “Leading” the target, where the amount of lead
depends on the speed and angle of the target’s movement. For this
technique, holding over is the preferred method. Anticipating the behavior of
the target is necessary to accurately place the shot).
14. If you work in terrain without any natural support, use your rucksack,
sandbag, a forked stick, or you may build a field-expedient bipod or tripod.
The most accurate position though is prone, with a sandbag supporting the
stock, and the stock’s cheek-piece against the cheek.
15. The key to sniping is consistency, which applies to both the weapon and
the shooter. While consistency does not necessarily ensure accuracy (which
requires training), sniping cannot be accurately carried out without it. The
need for consistency is highest when a sniper is firing the first shot
against an enemy unaware of the sniper’s presence. At this point,
high-priority targets such as snipers, officers and critical equipment are
most prominent and can be more accurately targeted. Once the first shot has
been fired, any surviving enemy will attempt to take cover or locate the
sniper, and attacking strategic targets becomes more difficult or impossible.

5.6 Counter-sniper tactics

1. Active: direct observation by posts equipped with laser protective glasses
and night vision devices; patrolling with military working dogs; calculating
the trajectory; bullet triangulation; using decoys to lure a sniper; using
another sniper; UAV (unmanned aerial vehicles); directing artillery or
mortar fire onto suspected sniper positions, the use of smoke-screens;
emplacing tripwire-operated munitions, mines, or other booby-traps near
suspected sniper positions( you can improvise booby-traps by connecting
trip-wires to fragmentation hand grenades, smoke grenades or flares. Even
though these may not kill the sniper, they will reveal his location. Booby
–traps devices should be placed close to likely sniper hides or along the
probable routes used into and out of the sniper’s work area). If the squad
is pinned down by sniper fire and still taking casualties, the order may be
given to rush the sniper’s position. If the sniper is too far for a direct
rush, a “rush to cover” can also be used. The squad may take casualties,
but with many moving targets and a slow-firing rifle, the losses are usually
small compared to holding position and being slowly picked off. If the
sniper’s position is known, but direct retaliation is not possible, a pair
of squads can move through concealment (cover) and drive the nipper toward
the group containing the targets. This decreases the chances that the sniper
will find a stealthy, quick escape route.

2. Passive: limited exposure of the personnel (use concealed routes, avoid
plazas and intersections, stay away from doorways and windows, move along the
side of the street and not down the center, move in the shadows, move
dispersed, avoid lighted areas at night, move quickly across open areas,
avoid wearing obvious badges of rank, adapt screens on windows, use armored
vehicles); use Kevlar helmet and bulletproof vest.

3. Locating an enemy sniper

1. Recon by fire. If a few possible sniper positions are visible, the squad
can offer limited fire into each while the sniper’s spotter watches for
signs of retaliation. In situations with heavy cover, the friendly sniper can
fire a tracer round into the location to direct heavier fire from the squad.
2. Mad minute. If there are too many possible positions for a recon by fire
, each likely enemy position is assigned to one or more friendly soldiers,
and upon receiving the signal, all simultaneously fire a specific number of
3. Reserve azimuth. If a sniper’s bullet enters a stationary object,
inserting a straight rod into the hole can reveal both the direction and arc
of the bullet, and can also be used to estimate range or elevation. This
technique is risky without cover, as it often involves entering the
sniper’s current field of fire.
4. Triangulation. Technique at two or more locations can identify more
accurately identify the position of a sniper at the time of firing.
5. Sound delay (“crack-bang”). The enemy’s supersonic bullets produce
a sonic boom, creating a “crack” sound as they pass by. If the enemy’s
bullet speed is known, his range can be estimated by measuring the delay
between the bullet’s passing and the sound of the rifle shot, then
comparing it to a table of values. This is only effective at distances of up
to 450 meters; beyond this, the delay continus to increase , but ar a rate
too small for humans to accurately distinguish.
6. Decoys. As more shots are fired, the chances of locating or directly
observing the enemy sniper increase. Decoys help to increase the number of
shots without taking human losses, and may include attractive targets such as
valuable (but unusable) equipment. Provocative signage (designed to offend
/insult the sniper) may even work if an enemy sniper is unwise, aggressive,
or does not know of the friendly presence in the area. Most trained snipers
are specifically trained to take as few shots as possible, be patient and
disciplined to circumvent this.
7. Detector. The sniper detector system , named Boomerang, can determine the
bullet type, trajectory and point of fire of unknown shooter location. The
system uses microphone sensors to detect both the muzzle blast and the sonic
shock wave that emanate from a high-speed bullet. Sensors detect, classify,
localize nd display the results on a map immediately after the shot.

Chapter 6. Military tricks

1. Use rapid dominance: technology + speed + information domination.
2. Use artillery preparation. It is the artillery fire delivered before an
attack to destroy, neutralize, or suppress the enemy’s defense and to
disrupt communications and disorganize the enemy’s defense.
3. Use deception especially before the first strike (air strike + artillery).
Deception plays a key part in offensive operations and has two objectives:
the first objective is to weaken the local defense by drawing reserves to
another part of the battlefield. This may be done by making a small force
seem larger than it is. The second objective is to conceal the avenue of
approach and timing of the main attack.
5. Imitate assault to make the enemy expose his positions and fire system.
6. Mines, mines, mines. There are four types of minefield : the tactical
large-area minefield, usually laid by engineers, for tactical use on the
battlefield(i.e. to canalize the enemy into killing areas); the protective
minefield, the sort that you will plant in front of your position for
defensive purposes; the nuisance minefield, designed to hamper and disrupt
enemy movement ; and the dummy minefield – a wired off area suitably marked
can be as effective as the real thing.
7. Don’t touch anything in the places the enemy just left — check for
mines first. A minefield is a mortal surprise and you have to know how to
breach and cross it: remove your helmet, rucksack, watch, belt, and anything
else that may hinder movement or fall off, leave your rifle and equipment
with another soldier in the team, get a wooden stick about 30 cm (12 in) long
for a probe and sharpen one of the ends (do not use a metal probe), place the
unsharpened end of the probe in the palm of one hand with your fingers
extended and your thumb holding the probe, and probe every 5 cm (2 in) across
a 1-meter area in front of you and push the probe gently into the ground at
an angle less than 45 degrees, kneel (or lie down) and feel upward and
forward with your free hand to find tripwires and pressure prongs before
starting to probe, put enough pressure on the probe to sink it slowly into
the ground and if the probe does not go into the ground, pick or chip the
dirt away with the probe and remove it by hand, stop probing when a solid
object is touched, remove enough dirt from around the object to find out what
it is. If you found a mine, remove enough dirt around it to see what type of
mine it is, mark it and report its exact location to your leader. Once a
footpath has been probed and the mines marked, a security team should cross
the minefield to secure the far side. After the far side is secure, the rest
of the unit should cross.
8. Visual indicators. Pay attention to the following indicators : trip
wires, signs of road repair (new fill or paving, road patches, ditching),
dead animals, damaged vehicles, tracks that stop unexplainably, wires leading
away from the side of the road (they may be firing wires that are partially
buried), mounds of dirt, change of plants color,, pieces of wood or othr
debris on a road. Remember, mined areas, like other obstacles are often
covered by fire. Keep also in mind, that local civilians try to avoid certain
(mined) areas.
9. Use phony minefields to simulate live minefields. For example, disturb the
ground so that it appears that mines have been emplaced and mark boundaries
with appropriate warnings.
10. Make a real minefield appear phony, or camouflage it. For example, once a
real minefield is settled, a wheel or a specially made circular wooden tank
track marker can be run through the field, leaving track or tire marks to
lure the enemy onto live mines. Antipersonnel mines should not be sown in
such a field until the track marks have been laid. Another method is to leave
gaps in the mechanically laid field, run vehicles through the gaps, and then
close them with hand-laid mines without disturbing the track marks.
11. Use feint attack to draw defensive action towards the point under assault
(it’s usually used as a diversion and to force the enemy to concentrate
more manpower in a given area so that the opposing force in another area is
12. Issue false orders over the radio, imitate a tanks’, fighters’ and
bombers’ assault while preparing to retreat.
13. Use dummy units and installations, phony radio traffic, movement and
suppressive fires in other areas timed to coincide with the real attack
14. Use force multiplication by using decoy vehicles and use small convoys to
generate dust clouds. Move trucks into and out of the area giving it the
appearance of being a storage facility or logistic base.
15. Simulate damage to induce the enemy to leave important targets alone. For
example, ragged patterns can be painted on the walls and roof of a building
with tar and coal dust, and covers placed over them.
16. Stack debris nearby and wire any unused portions for demolition. During
an attack, covers are removed under cover of smoke generators, debris
scattered and demolitions blown. Subsequent enemy air photography will
disclose a building that is too badly damaged to be used.
17. Change positions at night time only.
18. Use dispersal to relocate and spread out forces to increase their chances
of survival.
19. Imitate fake ballistic missiles divisions and military headquarters to
entrap enemy’s intelligence and sabotage groups.
20. Use “sack” strategy (“cutting” enemy’s army into separate
21. Use strategic bombing (the massive attack on cities, industries, lines of
communication and supply).
22. Simulate bombing of minor objects and attack important ones.
23. Use counter-battery fire (detecting with counter-battery radars the
source of incoming artillery shells and firing back), using mobile artillery
pieces or vehicles with mounted rocket launchers to fire and then move before
any counter-battery fire can land on the original position.
24. Use airborne operations, when helicopters transport troops into the
battle and provide fire support at battle sites simultaneously with artillery
fire, keeping enemy off guard.
25. Helicopters are extremely important as they can be sent everywhere: to
kill tanks and other helicopters, for aerial mine laying, for electronic
warfare, for naval operations (anti-submarine and anti-ship patrols), to
correct artillery and tactical fighters fire, for reconnaissance, command,
control and communications, to insert special forces, to evacuate casualties
(this helps maintain the morale of the troops), to carry supplies (missile
systems, ammunition, fuel food, to escort convoys, for navigational help, to
destroy battlefield radars, communications and radio relay systems, to seal
gaps and protect flanks, for rear-area security, counter — penetration,
rapid reinforcement of troops under pressure, raids and assaults behind enemy
lines, air assault in offensive and defensive operations, to strengthen
anti-tank defenses by inserting infantry anti-tank teams. Helicopters offer a
strong tactical surprise and take a ground conflict into the third dimension,
making the enemy’s ground maneuvers impossible.
26. When fighting an insurgency: once you get intelligence, you have to bomb
the area to “soften” insurgents and then send helicopters with special
forces teams right away. Helicopters suppress and cut-off by fire insurgents
trying to escape and the teams clear-up the remains. Transport helicopters
must bring in troops rapidly from different bases and build-up numerically
superior force which insurgents cannot match.
27. Use joint bombers/fighters flights to bomb transportation, supply,
bridges, railroads, highways, antiaircraft and radar sites. To gain surprise
, attack with the sun behind you. Remember, enemy will try to saturate the
airspace through which the aircraft will fly with fire.
28. Watch out for tank ambushes!

Chapter 7 Storming the City

7.1 Procedure

1. Effective intelligence is 90% of success. Use sources like agents among
the enemy’s high ranking officers, prisoners of war, captured documents and
maps, enemy’s activity, local civilians (agents). Use intelligence and
sabotage groups (through them you can deliver your fake plans and maps). You
must know how the enemy usually defends a built-up area and the approaches to
it, critical objectives within the built-up area that provide decisive
tactical advantages, tactical characteristics of the built-up area and its
structure. Information about the population will assist in determining where
to attack, what firepower restrictions may be imposed, and what areas within
the urban complex must be avoided to minimize destruction of life-support
facilities and civilian casualties.
2. Make the enemy attack you if possible, because if you attack first the
victims calculation is 5:1.
3. Train your troops to storm this certain city.
4. Blockade the city completely.
5. Attack the city from different points ( flanks and rear !) at the same
time after intense artillery fire and bombing (that’s a very strong
psychological blow. Its intensity is determined by the strength of defensive
forces, the type of building construction, and the density of fires required
to suppress observation and fires. You must destroy command posts, heavy
weapons positions, communications, troop emplacements, tall structures that
permit observation. Then engineers move forward under the cover of smoke and
high explosives to neutralize barriers and breach minefields on routes into
the city). Field artillery, attack helicopters and offense air support must
disrupt the enemy command and control network and destroy his support units (
field artillery mostly creates breaches in buildings, walls and barricades.
Mortars cover avenues of enemy troop movements, such as street intersections
and alleys; mortars firing positions are placed behind walls or inside
buildings close to their targets). A hasty attack is conducted when the
enemy has not established strong defensive positions and attacking forces can
exploit maneuver to overwhelm the defense – locate a weak spot or gap in
enemy defenses, fix forward enemy elements, rapidly move through or around
the gap or weak spot to be exploited. A deliberate attack is necessary
when enemy defenses are extremely prepared, when the urban obstacle is
extremely large or severely congested., or when the advantage of surprise has
been lost. It’s divided into three basic phases: isolation from
reinforcement and resupply by securing dominating terrain and utilizing
direct and indirect fires; assault to rupture the defenses and secure a
foothold on the perimeter of the built-up area from which attacks to clear
the area may be launched (an envelopment, assaulting defensive weaknesses on
the flanks or rear of the built-up area, is preferred, however , a
penetration may be required; and clearance , a systematic
building-by-building, block-by-block advance through the entire area..
6. Target vital bridges, transportation facilities that are required to
sustain future combat operations, strategic industrial or vital
communications facilities. Attacks against built-up areas will be avoided
when the area is not required to support future operations, bypassing is
tactically feasible, the built-up area has been declared an “open city”
to preclude civilian casualties or to preserve cultural or historical
facilities, sufficient combat forces are not available to seize and clear the
built-up area.
7. Don’t use tanks on narrow streets ! Tanks can be decisive in city
fighting, with the ability to demolish walls and fire medium and heavy
machine guns in several directions simultaneously. However, tanks are
especially vulnerable in urban combat. It’s much easier for enemy infantry
to sneak behind a tank or fire at its sides, where it is vulnerable. In
addition, firing down from multi-story buildings allows shots at the soft
upper turret armor and even basic weapons like Molotov cocktails, if aimed at
the engine air intakes, can disable a tank.
8. Use 3 groups at each point.
1st. A “dead” group plus tanks moves fast to the center, again, after
intense artillery fire and bombing (otherwise you’ll have heavy
2nd. The group follows the first one and inside the city goes like a
“fan” in all directions enveloping the defender’s flanks and rear.
3rd. The group is on reserve in case the enemy counterattacks.

The first phase of the attack should be conducted when visibility is poor.
Troops can exploit poor visibility to cross open areas, gain access to
rooftops, infiltrate enemy areas and gain a foothold. If the attack must be
made when visibility is good, units should consider using smoke to conceal
movement. The formation used in attack depends on the width and depth of the
zone to be cleared, the character of the area, anticipated enemy resistance,
and the formation adopted by the next higher command. Lead companies may have
engineers attached for immediate support. Tasks given to engineers may
include preparing and using explosives to breach walls and obstacles, finding
and exploding mines in place or helping remove them, clearing barricades and
rubble, cratering roads.
9. Use paratroopers to capture important objects (airport, government
buildings, military headquarters, port, railway station).
10. Capture high buildings and place machine gunners and snipers on upper
floors (buildings provide excellent sniping posts for defenders, too).
11. Get all important cross-roads to maneuver troops and tanks.
12. Block highways!
13. Watch out — there are mines everywhere (alleys and rubble-filled
streets are ideal for planting booby traps). Be alert for boobytraps in
doors, windows, halls, stairs, and concealed in furniture.
14. Watch underground communications — the enemy could stay in subway
tunnels, sewage system.
15. Don’t waste time storming the buildings — blow up the walls and move
16. Soldiers in an urban environment are faced with ground direct fire danger
in three dimensions — not just all-round fire but also from above
(multi-story buildings) and from below (sewers and subways) and that’s why,
here, the most survivable systems, like tanks, are at great risk. Also, there
are increased casualties because of shattered glass, falling debris, rubble,
ricochets, urban fires and falls from heights. Difficulty in maintaining
situational awareness also contributes to this problem because of increased
risk of fratricide. Stress-related casualties and non-battle injuries
resulting from illnesses or environmental hazards, such as contaminated
water, toxic industrial materials also increase the number of casualties.
17. In the streets use artillery and mortars to “soften” the enemy up
before assault.

7.2 House clearing.

Don’t spare your grenades (avoid throwing grenades at upper windows or
upstairs; they may bounce back), move fast from room to room. Machinegunners
from outside have to help the assault group with intense fire on upper
floors. The assault group always has to enter from the top floor. Shoot
ceilings and floors, furniture and other hiding places. Avoid stairways
whenever possible. Use flame weapons.

7.3 Seizure of a bridge.

1. Clear the near bank. The first step in seizing the bridge is to clear the
buildings on the clear bank that overwatch the bridge and the terrain on the
far side. The commander must find out which buildings dominate the
approaches to the bridge. Buildings that permit him to anti-tank weapons,
machine guns and riflemen are cleared while supporting fire prevents the
enemy from reinforcing his troops on the fart bank and keeps enemy demolition
parties away from the bridge.
2. Suppress. You have to suppress enemy weapons on the far bank with direct
and indirect fire (tanks, TOWs and machine guns). In suppressing the
enemy’s positions on the far bank , priority is given to those positions
from which the enemy can fire directly down the bridge. Use screening smoke
to limit enemy observation.
3. Assault. Seize a bridgehead (buildings that overwatch and dominate the
bridge) on the far bank by an assault across the bridge. The objectives of
the assaulting platoons are buildings that dominate the approaches to the
bridge on the far side. One or two platoons assault across the bridge using
all available cover while concealed by smoke. In addition to a frontal
assault across the bridge, other routes should be considered. They are
supported by the rest of the company and any attached forces. Once on the
other side, they call for the shifting of supporting fire and start clearing
buildings. When the first buildings are cleared, supporting fire is lifted
and/or shifted again and the assault continues until all the buildings in the
objective area are cleared.
4. Clear the bridge. Secure a perimeter around the bridge so that the
engineers can clear any obstacles and remove demolitions from the bridge. The
company commander may expend his perimeter to prepare for counterattack. Once
the bridge is cleared, tanks and other support vehicles are brought across to
the far bank.

7.4 Seizure of a traffic circle.

A company may have to seize a traffic circle either to secure it for friendly
use or to deny it top the enemy. This operation consists of seizing and
clearing the buildings that control their traffic circle, and bringing
direct-fire weapons into position to cover it.

7.5 Search.

You are not done even if the storm was a success, because right away you have
to search the houses and buildings in the following way: divide the area to
be searched into zones, and assign a search team to each. A team usually
consists of a search element (to conduct the search), a security element (to
encircle the area) and a reserve area (to assist, as required). Then search
the buildings, underground and underwater areas using mine detectors. And
it’s necessary to establish checkpoints and roadblocks around the area.
Building clearing assault team.
The direction each man moves in should not be preplanned unless the exact
room layout is known. Each man should go in a direction opposite the man in
front of him. Every team member must know the sectors and duties of erach
position. The first man (rifleman) enters the room and eliminates the
immediate threat. He has the option of going left or right, normally moving
along the path of least resistance to one of two corners. When using a
doorway as the point of entry, the path of least resistance is determined
initially based on the way the door opens; if the door opens inward he plans
to move away from the hinges. If the door opens outward, he plans to move
toward the hinged side. Upon entering, the size of the room, enemy situation,
and furniture or other obstacles that hinder or channel movement become
factors that influence the number 1 soldier’s direction of movement. As the
first man goes through the entry point, he can usually see into the far
corner of the room. He eliminates any immediate threat and continues to move
along the wall if possible and to the first corner, where he assumes a
position of domination facing into the room.
The second man (team leader), entering almost simultaneously with the first,
moves in the opposite direction, following the wall and staying out of the
center. The second man must clear the entry point, clear the immediate threat
area, clear his corner, and move to a dominating position on his side of the
The third man (grenadier) simply goes opposite of the second man inside the
room at least one meter from the entry point and moves to a position that
dominates his sector.
The fourth man (SAW gunner) moves opposite of the third man and moves to a
position that dominates his sector.

Stairwells and staircases are comparable to doorways in that they create a
fatal funnel; however, the danger is intensified by the three-dimensional
aspect of additional landings. The ability of the squad or team to conduct
the movement depends upon which direction they are travelling and the layout
of the stairs. The clearing technique follows a basic format: the squad
leader designates an assault element to clear the stairs; the squad or team
maintains 360-degree, three-dimensional security in the vicinity of the
stairs; the squad leader then directs the assault team to locate, mark,
bypass and clear any obstacles or booby traps that may be blocking access to
the stairs.; the assault element moves up (or down) the stairways by using
either the two-, three-, or four-man flow technique, providing overwatch up
and down the stairs while moving.

7.6 How to move and how to fire

Moving from building to building or between buildings present a problem to
units conductive offensive operations. Most casualties can be expected during
movement from building to building and down streets. You must consider which
buildings must be isolated, suppressed and obscured, as well as using armored
assets as shields for maneuver elements. In movement down narrow streets, or
down wider streets with narrow paths through the debris, infantry should move
ahead of tanks, clearing the buildings on each side. Personnel movement
across open areas must be planned with specific destination in mind. Street
intersections should be avoided, since they are normally used as engagement
areas. Suppression of enemy positions and smoke to cover infantry movement
should also be included in the fire support plan. When needed, tanks move up
to places secured by the infantry to hit suitable targets. When an area is
cleared, the infantry again moves forward to clear the next area. Tanks and
infantry should use the traveling overwatch movement technique and
communicate with tank crews by using arm-and-hand signals and radio. For
movement down wider streets, infantry platoons normally have a section of
attached tanks with one tank on each side of the street. Single tanks should
not be employed. Other tanks of the attached tank platoon should move behind
the infantry and fire at targets in upper stories of the buildings. In wide
boulevards, you can employ a tank platoon secured by one or more infantry
platoons. The infantry can secure the forward movement of the lead tanks,
while the trailing tanks overwatch the movement of the lead units. Tanks may
drive inside buildings or behind walls for protection from enemy antitank
missile fire where feasible. Buildings are cleared by the infantry first.
Ground floors are checked to ensure they support the tank and there is no
basement into which tank could fall. When moving, all bridges and overpasses
are checked for mines, booby traps and load capacity.
When moving from position to position, each soldier must be ready to cover
the movement of other members of his fire team or squad. He must use his new
position effectively and fire his weapon from either shoulder depending on
the position. The most common errors a soldier makes when firing from a
position are firing over the top of his cover and silhouetting himself
against the building to his rear. Both provide the enemy an easy target. The
correct technique for firing from a covered position is to fire around the
side of the cover, which reduces exposure to the enemy. Another common error
is for a right-handed shooter to fire from the right shoulder around the left
corner of a building. Firing left-handed around the left corner of a building
takes advantage of the corner afforded by the building. Right-handed and
left-handed soldiers should be trained to adapt cover and concealment to fit
their manual orientation. A common mistake when firing around corners is a
firing from the standing position. You expose yourself at the height the
enemy would expect a target to appear. When firing from behind the walls, you
must fire around cover and not over it.
In an urban area , windows provide convenient firing ports. Avoid firing
from the standing position since it exposes most of the body to return fire
from the enemy and could silhouette you against a light-colored interior
beyond the window. This is an obvious sign of the soldier’s position,
especially at night when the muzzle flash can easily be observed. In using
the proper method of firing from a window, be well back into the room and
kneel to limit exposure. When no cover is available, reduce exposure by
firing from the prone position, from shadows and by presenting no silhouette
against buildings.
The area around a corner must be observed before you move. The most common
mistake is allowing your weapon to extend beyond the corner exposing your
position (flagging the weapon). A special clearing technique is used when
speed is required (the pie-ing method) – this procedure is done by aiming
the weapon beyond the corner into the direction of travel (without flagging)
and side-stepping around the corner in a circular fashion with the muzzle as
the pivot point.
Doorways should not be used as entrances or exits since they are normally
covered by enemy fire. If you must use a doorway as an exit, you should move
quickly to your next position, staying as low as possible to avoid
silhouetting yourself. Pre-selection of positions, speed, a low silhouette
and the use of covering fires must be emphasized in exiting doorways.
Use double tap - it is a shooting technique where two shots are fired
quickly at the same target. In the double tap technique, after the first
round is fired, the trigger is quickly pulled again while maintaining the
same point of aim. Ideally, both rounds should strike anywhere within the
centre of the target, causing two sites of trauma and maximizing shock. The
technique is meant to both impose restraint and fire control on the users of
any weapon while maximizing the potential of both hitting and incapacitating
the target. Extensive tests show that after the third round of sustained
fire, accuracy drops off sharply, as aim is thrown off by gun recoil. Using
the double tap technique maintains target accuracy without wasting ammunition
and decreases the probability of damage to non-targets. Furthermore, since
single rounds tend to have poor terminal ballistics characteristics, a pair
of bullets traversing through a target in close track (eg. the double tap)
increases the probability of incapacitating a target. Also, since the center
of mass is the most desirable target for a sidearm, firing two rounds helps
compensate for the possibility that the first round might be deflected by
heavy bone or miss a vital organ. Against armored targets, the double-tap is
sometimes the only way to penetrate armored protection. While appropriate
soft armor can stop almost any pistol-caliber round once, two rounds impcting
the same spot will almost certainly penetrate the armor. Likewise with hard
armor, two rounds from a higher-powered weapon stand a much better chance of
penetrating the armor if the rounds strike closely.

7.7 Reasons for not-defending urban areas

1.The location of the urban area does not support the overall defensive plan.
If the urban area is too far forward or back in a unit’s defensive sector,
is isolated, or is not astride an enemy’s expected avenue of approach , the
commander may choose not to defend it
2.Nearby terrain allows the enemy to bypass on covered or uncovered routes.
Some urban areas, mainly smaller ones, are bypassed by main road and highway
3. Structures within the urban area do not adequately protect the defenders.
Extensive areas of lightly built or flammable structures offer little
protection. Urban areas near flammable or hazardous industrial areas, such as
refineries or chemical plants, should not be defended because of increased
danger of fire to the defenders.
4. Dominating terrain is close to the urban area. If the urban area can be
dominated by an enemy force occupying this terrain, the commander may choose
to defend from there rather than the urban area. This applies mainly to small
urban areas such as village.
5. Better fields of fire exist outside the urban area. The commander may
choose to base all or part of his defense on long-range fields of fire
outside an urban area. This applies mainly to armor-heavy forces defending
sectors with multiple, small urban areas surrounded by open terrain, such as
agricultural areas with villages.
6. The urban area has cultural, religious or historical significance. The
area may have been declared an “open city” in which case by international
law, it is demilitarized and must be neither defended nor attacked. The
attacking force must assume civil administrative control and treat the
civilians as noncombatants in an occupied country. The defender must
immediately evacuate and cannot arm the civilian population. A city can be
declared open only before it is attacked. The presence of large numbers of
noncombatants, hospitals or wounded personnel may also affect the
commander’s decision not to defend an urban area.

7.8 Reasons for defending urban areas

1. Certain urban areas contain strategic industrial, transportation or
economic complexes that must be defended. Capital and cultural centers may be
defended for strictly psychological or national morale purposes even when
they do not offer a tactical advantage to the defender. Because of the sprawl
of such areas, significant combat power is required for their defense. The
decision to defend these complexes is made by political authorities or the
theatre commander.
2. The defender’s need to shift and concentrate combat power, and to move
large amounts of supplies over a wide battle area may require retention of
vital transportation centers. Since most transportation centers serve large
areas, the commander must defend the urban area to control such centers.
3. Most avenues of approach are straddled by small towns every few kilometers
and must be controlled by defending forces. These areas can be used as battle
positions or strongpoints. Blocked streets covered by mortar and/or artillery
fire can canalize attacking armor into mined areas or zones covered by
anti-armor fire. If an attacker tries to bypass an urban area, he may
encounter an array of tank-killing weapons. To clear such an area, the
attacker must sacrifice speed and momentum, and expend many resources. A city
or town can easily become a major obstacle.
4. Aerial photography, imagery and sensory devices cannot detect forces
deployed in cities.

Chapter 8. Special forces.

Maximum damage, minimum loss.

8.1 Special military operations have special requirements.

1. Detailed planning and coordination that allow the special unit to discern
and exploit the enemy’s weakness while avoiding its strength.
2. Decentralized execution, individual and unit initiative.
3. Surprise, achieved through the unit’s ability to move by uncommon means,
along unexpected routes, over rough terrain, during poor weather and reduced
visibility. Survivability, achieved by rapid mission accomplishment and a
prompt departure from the objective area.
4. Mobility, speed, and violence of execution (the speed at which events take
place confuses and deceives the enemy as to the intent of the unit, and
forces the enemy to react rather than to take the initiative).
5. Shock effect, which is a psychological advantage achieved by the combining
of speed and violence. The special unit strives to apply its full combat
power at he decisive time and place, and at the point of the greatest enemy
6. Multiple methods of insertion and attack, trying not to repeat operations
thus decreasing the chance the enemy will detect a pattern. Deception,
achieved by feints, false insertions, electronic countermeasures, and dummy
7. Audacity, achieved by a willingness to accept a risk.

Any special team member has to have experience in sniping, underwater
swimming, conducting high-altitude, low-opening parachute operations,
demolition, using all kinds of weapons, including man-portable air-defense
system weapons. And there are some limitations, like limited capability
against armored or motorized units in open terrain and no casualty evacuation

8.2 Use special forces for:

a) establishing a credible American presence in any part of the world
b) conducting limited combat operations under conditions of chemical, nuclear
or biological contamination
c) surveillance and intelligence gathering using recruited agents too (local
citizens who support your war or just work for money). To get to the area you
have to use infiltration, the movement into the territory occupied by enemy
troops, the contact is avoided.
d) raids on the enemy’s defense system
Raids are normally conducted in the following phases: the team inserts or
infiltrates into the objective area; the objective area is sealed off from
outside support or reinforcement, to include the enemy air threat; any enemy
force at or near the objective is overcome by surprise and violent attack,
using all available firepower for shock effect; the mission is accomplished
quickly before any surviving enemy can recover or be reinforced; the ranger
force quickly withdraws from the objective area and is extracted. (The team
can land on or near the objective and seize it before the enemy can react.
Thus you avoid forced marches over land carrying heavy combat loads. If there
is no suitable landing area near the objective, or the enemy has a strong
reaction force nearby, the team has to land unseen far from the objective. It
then assembles and moves to the objective).
e) ambush.
Depending on terrain ambushes are divided into near (less than 50 meters, in
jungle or heavy woods) and far (beyond 50 meters, in open terrain).
Raids consist of clandestine insertion, brief violent combat, rapid
disengagement, swift deceptive withdrawal. The raid is used mostly to destroy
command posts, communication centers and supply dumps, shipyards, electrical
generation facilities, water pumping stations, phone lines, oil or natural
gas pipelines, radio and TV stations, mountain passes or routes in restricted
terrain, capture supplies and personnel, rescue friendly forces, distract
attention from other operations, steal plans and code books, rescue prisoners
of war, create havoc in the enemy’s rear areas, blow railroads and bridges.
By blowing bridges you block and delay the movement of personnel and supplies
and by making railroads and certain routes temporary useless you change
enemy’s movement on to a small number of major roads and railway lines
where it is more vulnerable to attack by other forces (especially air

Stages of an ambush:

1. Planning. You have to identify a suitable killing zone (a place where the
ambush will be laid). It’s a place where enemy units are expected to pass
and which gives reasonable cover for the deployment execution and extraction
phases of the ambush patrol. Ambush includes 3 main elements: surprise,
coordinated fire of all weapons to isolate the killing zone and to inflict
maximum damage and control (early warning of target approach, opening fire at
the proper time, timely and orderly withdrawal). You can also plan a
mechanical ambush, which consists of the mines set in series. Preparation.
You have to deploy into the area covertly, preferably at night and establish
secure and covert positions overlooking the killing zone. Then you send two
or more cut off groups a short distance from the main ambushing group into
similarly covert positions — they have to give you early warning of
approaching enemy by radio and, when the ambush is initiated, to prevent any
enemy from escaping. Another group will cover the rear of the ambush position
and thus give all-round defense to the ambush patrol. No smoking! Attention:
you have to occupy the ambush site as late as possible — this reduces the
risk of discovery. (While choosing and ambush site pay attention to natural
cover and concealment for your team, routes of entry and withdrawal, good
observation and fields of fire, harmless-looking terrain, few enemy escape
routes, terrain that will canalize enemy into the killing zone, and natural
obstacles to keep him there).
2. Execution. You must give a clear instruction for initiating the ambush. It
should be initiated with a mass casualty producing weapon (mortars and
machine guns) to produce a maximum shock effect and break the enemy’s
spirit to fight back (shock effect can cover unexpected defects in ambush,
like ambushing a much larger force that expected). Then, after the firefight
has been won, the ambush patrol has to clear the zone by checking bodies for
intelligence and taking prisoners. After that you have to leave the area as
soon as possible, by a pre-determined route.
3. Disruption of the government functions: recruitment of informants; terror
and murders of political leaders and federal and local government chiefs,
provoking strikes and mass disobedience; publishing illegal newspapers and
literature; anti-government propaganda through illegal radio stations;
involving locals in the guerrilla campaign.

Chapter 9. Guerrilla warfare.

Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a
small group use mobile tactics (ambushes, raids, etc) to fight a larger and
less mobile regular army. THIS IS ABSOLUTELY WRONG – they sabotage the rear
! Same mistake Soviet guerrillas did during World War II , though Chechnya is
an example.
Guerrilla tactics are based on intelligence , ambush, deception, sabotage,
undermining an authority through long, low-intensity confrontation. A
guerrilla army may increase the cost of maintaining an occupation above what
the foreign power may wish to bear. Against a local regime, the guerrillas
may make governance impossible with terror strikes and sabotage, and even
combination of forces to depose their local enemies in conventional battle.
These tactics are useful in demoralizing an enemy, while raising the morale
of the guerrillas. In many cases, a small force holds off a much larger and
better equipped army for a long time, as in Russia’s Second Chechen War.
Guerrilla operations include attacks on transportation routes, individual
groups of police and military, installations and structures, economic
enterprises and targeted civilians, politicians included. Attacking in small
groups, using camouflage and captured weapons of that enemy, the guerrilla
force can constantly keep pressure on its foes and diminish its numbers,
while still allowing escape with relatively few casualties. The intention of
such attacks is not only military but political, aiming to demoralize target
populations or governments, or goading an overreaction that forces the
population to take sides for or against the guerrillas. Ambushes on key
transportation routes are a hallmark of guerrilla operations, causing both
economic and political disruption.
Whatever the particular tactics used, the guerrillas primarily fight to
preserve his forces and political support, not capture or hold specific
territory as a conventional force would.
Guerrilla warfare resembles rebellion, yet it is a different concept.
Guerrilla organization ranges from small, local, rebel groups of a few dozen
guerrillas , to thousands of fighters, deploying from cells to regiments. In
most cases, the leaders have clear political aims for the warfare they wage.
Typically, the organization has political and military wings, to allow the
political leaders “plausible denial” for military attacks. Guerrillas
operate with a smaller logistical footprint compared to conventional
formations. A primary consideration is to avoid dependence on fixed bases and
depots which are comparatively easy for conventional units to locate and
destroy. Mobility and speed are the keys and wherever possible, the guerrilla
must live off the land, or draw support from the civilian population in which
he is embedded. Financing of operations ranges from direct individual
contributions (voluntary or not), and actual operation of business
enterprises by insurgent operatives, to bank robberies, kidnappings and
complex financial networks based on kin, ethnic and religious affiliation
(such as used by Jihad organizations). Permanent and semi-permanent bases
form part of the guerilla logistical structure, usually located in remote
areas or in cross-border sanctuaries sheltered by friendly regimes.
Guerrilla warfare is often associated with a rural setting (mujahedeen and
Taliban in Afghanistan, the Contras of Nicaragua). Guerrillas however
successfully operate in urban settings (as in Jerusalem, Israel or Baghdad,
Iraq). Rural guerrillas prefer to operate in regions providing plenty of
cover and concealment, especially heavily forested and mountainous areas.
Urban guerrillas blend into the population and are also dependent on a
support base among the people.

Intelligence is very important; collaborators and sympathizers will usually
provide a steady flow of information.

Public sources of information and Internet serve very well, too.
Intelligence is concerned also with political factors such as occurrence of
an election or the impact of the potential operation on civilian and enemy
Able to choose the time and place to strike, guerrillas possess the
tactical initiative. Many guerrilla strikes are not undertaken unless clear
numerical superiority can be achieved in the target area. Individual suicide
bomb attacks offer another pattern, involving only one individual bomber and
his support team. Whatever approach is, guerrillas hold the initiative and
can prolong their survival through varying the intensity of combat. This
means that attacks are spread out over quite a range of time, from weeks to
years. During interim periods, the guerrilla can rebuild, resupply, train,
provide propaganda indoctrination, gather intelligence, infiltrate into army,
police, political parties and community organizations,

Relationships with civil population are influenced by whether the
guerrillas operate among a hostile or friendly population. A friendly
population is of huge importance to guerrillas, providing shelter, supplies,
financing, intelligence and recruits. Popular mass support in a confined
local area or country however is not always strictly necessary. Guerrillas
can still operate using the protection of a friendly regime, drawing
supplies, weapons, intelligence, local security and diplomatic cover. The
Al-Qaeda is an example of the latter type, drawing sympathizers and support
primarily from the wide-ranging Arab world.
Foreign support (soldiers, weapons, sanctuary or statements of sympathy for
the guerrillas can greatly increase the chances of an insurgent victory.
Foreign diplomatic support may bring the guerrilla cause to international
attention, putting pressure on local opponents to make concessions, or
garnering sympathetic support and material assistance. Foreign sanctuaries
can add heavily to guerrilla chances, furnishing weapons, supplies, materials
and training bases. Such shelter can benefit from international law,
particularly if the sponsoring government is successful in concealing its
support and in claiming “plausible denial” for attacks by operatives
based on its territory. Al-Qaeda , for example, made effective use of remote
territories, such as Afghanistan under the Taliban regime , to plan and
execute its operations.
Terror is used by guerrillas to focus international attention on the
guerrilla cause, kill opposition leaders, extort money from targets,
intimidate the general population, create economic losses, and keep followers
and potential defectors in line. Such tactics may backfire and cause the
civil population to withdraw its support, or to back countervailing forces
against the guerrillas. Such situations occurred in Israel, where suicide
bombings encouraged most Israeli opinion to take a harsh stand against
Palestinian attackers, including general approval of “targeted
killings” to kill enemy cells and leaders. Civilians may be attacked or
killed for alleged collaboration, or as a policy of intimidation and coercion
– operations are sanctioned by the guerrilla leaders if they see a
political benefit. Attacks may be aimed to weaken civilian morale so that
support for the guerrilla opponents decreases. The use of attacks against
civilians to create atmosphere of chaos ( and thus political advantage where
the atmosphere causes foreign occupiers to withdraw or offer concessions), is
well established in guerrilla and national liberation struggles.
Examples of successful guerrilla warfare against a native regime include
the Cuban Revolution, Chinese Civil War, Sandinista Revolution in Nicaragua.
Many coups and rebellions in Africa reflect guerrilla warfare, with various
groups having clear political objectives and using the above mentioned
tactics (Uganda, Liberia). In Asia, native or local regimes have been
overthrown by guerrilla warfare (Vietnam, China, Cambodia). Unsuccessful
examples include Portuguese Africa (Angola, Mozambique and Guinea-Bissau),
Malaysia (then Malaya), Bolivia, Argentina and the Philippines. The
Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, fighting for an independent homeland in the
north and east of Sri Lanka, achieved significant military successes against
the Sri Lankan military and the government itself for twenty years. It was
even able to use these tactics effectively against the peace keeping force
sent by India .


Insurgency is not simply random political violence; it is directed and
focused political violence. It requires leadership to provide vision,
guidance, coordination and organizational coherence. The leaders of the
insurgency must make their cause known to people. They must gain popular
support, and their key tasks are to break the ties between the people and the
government and to establish their movement’s credibility. They must replace
the government’s legitimacy with that of their own. Their education,
background, family, social connections and experience shape how they think,
what they want , and how they fulfill their goals. Leadership is both a
function of organization and of personality. Some organizations de-emphasize
individual personalities and provide mechanisms for rebundancy and
replacement in decision making; these mechanisms produce collective power and
do not depend on specific leaders or personalities to be effective. They are
easier to penetrate but more resilient to change. Other organizations may
depend on a charismatic personality to provide cohesion, motivation, and a
rallying point for the movement. Leadership organized in this way can
produce decisions and initiate new actions rapidly, nut it is vulnerable to
disruption if key personalities are removed or co-opted.

2. Ideology.
To win, insurgency must have a program that justifies its actions and
explains what is wrong with society. It must promise great improvement after
the government is overthrown. Ideology guides the insurgents in offering
society a goal. The insurgents often express this goal in simple terms for
ease of focus. The insurgent leader can use ideology to justify the use of
violence and extralegal action in challenging the current social order, and
to form a framework of the program for the future. Ideology identifies those
sectors of society which the insurgency targets. Ideology may suggest
probable objectives and tactics. It greatly influences the insurgent’s
perception of his environment. The combination of the insurgent’s ideology
and his perception of his environment shapes the movement’s organizational
and operational methods.

The strategic objective is the insurgent’s desired end state – that is
, how the insurgent will use power once he has it.
Operational objectives are those which the insurgents pursue as part of the
overall process of destroying government legitimacy and progressively
establishing their desired end state. The following are examples of
operational objectives:
-isolation of the government from diplomatic and material support, and
increased international support for the insurgency
-destruction of the self-confidence of the government’s leaders, cadre and
armed forces, causing them to abdicate or withdraw
-establishment of civil cervices and administration ion areas under insurgent
-capture of the support (or neutrality) of critical segments of the

Tactical objectives are the immediate aims of insurgent acts, for example,
the dissemination of a psychological operation product or the attack and
seizure of a key facility. These actions accomplish tactical objectives which
lead to operational goals.

4.External support.

There are four types of external support:
- moral – acknowledgement of the insurgent cause as just and admirable
- political – active promotion of the insurgents strategic goals in
international forums
- resources – money, weapons, food, advisors, training
- sanctuary – secure training, operational and logistic bases

5.Organizational and operational patterns.


Subversive insurgents penetrate the political structure to control it and
use it for their own purposes. They seek elective and appointed offices. They
employ violence selectively to coerce voters, intimidate officials, disrupt
and discredit the government. Violence shows the system is incompetent. It
may also provoke the government to an excessively violent response which
further undermines its legitimacy. A subversive insurgency most often appears
in a permissive political environment in which insurgents can use both legal
and illegal methods. The typical subversive organization consists of a legal
party supported by a clandestine element operating outside the law.
Subversive insurgencies can quickly shift to the “critical-cell” pattern
when conditions dictate. The Nazi rise to power in the 1930s is an example of
this model. Subversive insurgencies primarily present a problem for police
and counter-intelligence.


In the critical-cell, the insurgents also infiltrate government
institutions. Their object is to destroy system from within. The “moles”
operate both covertly and overtly. Normally, the insurgents do not reveal
their affiliation or program. They seek to undermine institutional legitimacy
and convince or coerce others to assist them. Their violence remains covert
until the institutions are so weakened that the insurgency’s superior
organization seizes power, supported by armed force. The Russian October,
1917 revolution followed this pattern.
There are variations of the critical-cell pattern, too. The first is the
co-opting of an essentially leaderless, mass popular revolution. The
Sandinistas’ takeover of the Nicaraguan revolution is a case of point. The
insurgent leadership permits the popular revolution to destroy the existing
government. The insurgent movement then emerges, activating its cells to
guide reconstruction under its direction. It provides a disciplined structure
to control the former bureaucracy. The mass popular revolution then coalesces
around the structure.
A second variation of the critical-cell pattern is the foco (or Cuban
model) insurgency. A foco is a single, armed cell which emerges from hidden
strong holds in an atmosphere of disintegrating legitimacy. In theory, this
cell is the nucleus around which mass popular support rallies. The insurgents
erect new institutions and establish control on the basis of that support.
The foco insurgencies are often made up predominantly of guerrilla fighters
operating initially from remote enclaves. The Cuban revolution occurred in
this manner. The Cuban experience spawned over 200 subsequent imitative
revolutionary attempts patterned on it, principally in Latin America and
Africa – they all failed, but that does not discredit foco theory. It does
emphasize the importance of a particular set of circumstances to this model.
Legitimacy must be near total collapse, timing is critical. The Nicaraguan
insurgency for example, combined the foco with a broad-front political

c)Mass oriented.

The mass-oriented insurgency aims to achieve the political and armed
mobilization of a large popular movement. They emphasize creating a political
and armed legitimacy outside the existing system. They challenge that system
and then destroy or supplant it. These insurgents patiently build a large
armed force of regular and irregular guerrillas. They also construct a base
of active and passive political supporters. They plan a protracted campaign
of increasing violence to destroy the governments and its institutions from
the outside. They organize in detail. Their political leadership normally is
distinct from their military leadership. Their movement establishes a rival
government which openly proclaims its own legitimacy. They have a
well-developed ideology and decide on their own objectives only after careful
analysis. Highly organized and using propaganda and guerrilla action, they
mobilize forces for a direct military and political challenge to the
government. Once established, mass-oriented insurgencies are extremely
resilient because of their great depth of organization. Examples of this
model include the communist revolution in China, the Vietcong insurgency, the
Sendero Luminoso (Shining Path) in Peru.


The traditional insurgency normally grows from very specific grievances and
initially has limited aims. It springs from tribal, radical, religious or
other similarly identifiable groups. These insurgents perceive that the
government has denied the rights and interests of their group and work to
establish or restore them. The frequently seek withdrawal from government
control through autonomy or semi-autonomy. They seldom seek specifically to
overthrow the government or to control the whole society. They generally
respond in kind to government violence. Their use of violence can range from
strikes and street demonstrations to terrorism or guerrilla warfare. These
insurgencies may cease if the government accedes to the insurgents’
demands. The concessions of insurgents’ demands , however, are usually so
great that the government concedes its legitimacy along with them. Examples
of this model include the Mujahideen in Afghanistan, the Ibo revolt in
Nigeria (Biafra), the Tami separatists in Sri Lanka.

No insurgency follows one pattern exclusively.

Typical missions which guerrillas conduct to accomplish their goals include:
destroying or damaging vital installations, equipment or supplies; capturing
supplies, equipment, or key governmental or military personnel; diverting
government forces from other operations; creating confusion and weakening
government morale. Remember: guerrilla is a political war, and asymmetric
Guerrillas are not normally organized or equipped for stand-and-fight type
defensive operations. They prefer to defend themselves by moving, by
dispersing into small groups, or by diverting the opponent’s attention
while they withdraw. Whenever possible, these operations are accomplished by
offensive operations against the opponent’s flank or rear. One of the most
important needs of guerrilla forces is support, which can come from different
sources — food can be stolen or supplied by political sympathizers, weapons
can be gathered from raids on government installations or provided by a
foreign power (as well as secret training and indoctrination).

Guerrillas strength:

- highly motivated leadership and simple organization.The basic guerrilla
organization is an independent three- to five-men cell. The cells can be
brought together for larger operations and dispersed later. Guerrillas are
organized into cells for two reasons: first, it’s security, second, it’s
for support (guerrillas must live off the land to a large degree, and small
cells easier support themselves).
- strong belief in a political, religious, or social cause (most of them are
- ability to blend with local population and perfect knowledge of environment
- strong discipline
- effective intelligence through penetration into the government agencies
- limited responsibilities (the guerrillas usually don’t have the
responsibility to maintain normal governmental obligations toward society)
- the ability to utilize a broad range of tactics, from terror and sabotage
through conventional warfare. They don’t hesitate to use bombings,
kidnappings, murders, torture, blackmail to press local authorities or
provoke overreaction on the part of the government forces, so that the
population will be alienated by the government forces actions (it happens
when they target government leaders). In cities guerrillas can disrupt public
utilities and services by sabotage and the government may lose control of the
situation; they can widely use snipers and explosives there. They can
generate widespread disturbances, attack government offices, create incidents
or massing crowds in order to lure the government forces into a trap.
- mobility. Guerrillas usually disperse during their movements and unite near
the target area. The most common techniques employed by them are the ambush,
raid and small-scale attacks against security posts, small forces, facilities
and lines of communication, using mining, booby trapping and sniping. Targets
are selected by the guerrilla based on an analysis of how much the
elimination of the target will disrupt the government, what the effect on the
populace will be, the risk of being killed or captured, and the amount of
weapons or supplies which can be used (this analysis calls for timely
intelligence, which is gained by active patrolling).

Guerrilla Weaknesses:

- mental and physical stress, caused by long periods of isolation in an
unstable environment
- fear of criminal prosecution by the government, or of reprisals against
friends and family
- feeling of numerical and technological inferiority of counter-guerrilla
- limited personnel and resources, and uncertain public base of support
- security problems about their base camps (they are usually not more than
one day march from a village or town). If guerrillas receive support from
external sources, they are faced with a problem of security for supply lines,
transport means and storage facilities. Besides, you have to know their
organization and plans, resources (arms, ammunition, food and medicine
supply), leaders and their personalities, lines of communications, relations
with civilian population, vulnerabilities. (Again, recruit, recruit and
recruit!). You have to evaluate also the effects of terrain (including
landing and pickup zones) and the weather effect on men, weapons, equipment,
visibility and mobility.

Urban guerrilla warfare has its own peculiarities. Cities and towns are
vulnerable to urban guerrilla because they are the focus of economic and
political power. In many cases, public utilities can be disrupted and the
government may appear to have lost control of the situation. The
concentration of a large number of people in a relatively small area provides
cover for the guerrilla. However, the insurgent may find support only in a
certain areas of a town or a city. Anyway, the urban guerrilla lives in a
community that is friendly to him or is too frightened to withhold its
support or betray him. In a city the snipers and explosive devices can be
placed everywhere. The availability of large numbers of people ensures that
crowds can be assembled and demonstrations manipulated easily. The presence
of women and children restricts counter-guerrilla force reactions, and
excessive force may ensure a major incident that provides the guerrilla with
propaganda. Publicity is easily achieved in an urban area because no major
incident can be concealed from the local population even if it is not widely
reported by the news media. Every explosion may be exploited to discredit the
ability of the government to provide protection and control.

Urban guerrilla tactics:
- disrupting industry and public services by strikes and sabotage
- generating widespread disturbances designed to stretch the resources of the
counter-guerrilla force
- creating incidents or massing crowds in order to lure the counter-guerrilla
into a trap
- provoking the counter-guerrilla force in the hope that it may overreact (to
provide hostile propaganda after that)
- fomenting interfactional strife
- sniping at roadblocks, outposts and sentries
- attacking buildings with rockets and mortars
- planting explosive devices, either against specific targets or
indiscriminately, to cause confusion and destruction, and to lower public
-ambushing patrols and firing on helicopters


1.Since many insurgents rely on the population for recruits, food, shelter,
financing, you must focus your efforts on providing physical and economic
security for that population and defending it against insurgent attacks and
2. There must be a clear political program that can neutralize the guerrilla
program – this can range from granting political autonomy to economic
development measures in the affected region + an aggressive media campaign.
3. You have to “clean” and re-build all levels of the government
structure – usually insurgents talk about corrupted politicians a lot and
that’s why they have support from population.
4. You don’t have to overreact to guerrilla actions , because this is what
they are looking for.
5. Use big military operations only to break up significant guerrilla
concentrations and split them into small groups.
6. Keep insurgents on run constantly with aggressive patrols, raids,
ambushes, sweeps, cordons, roadblocks, prisoner snatches. Intelligence and
recruitment of informants is the key to success. (KGB in post WWII period
used bogus guerrilla groups in Western Ukraine that helped reveal real
7. An “ink spot” clear and hold strategy must be used to divide the
conflict area into sectors and assign priorities between them. Control must
expand outward like an ink spot on paper, systematically neutralizing and
eliminating the insurgents in one sector of the grid, before proceeding to
the next. It may be necessary to pursue holding or defensive actions
elsewhere , while priority areas are cleared and held.
8. Mass forces, including village self-defense groups and citizen militias
organized for community defense can be useful in providing civic mobilization
and local security.
9. Use special units and “hunter-killer” patrols.
10. The limits of foreign assistance must be clearly defined and carefully
used. Such aid should be limited either by time , or as to material and
technical, and personnel support, or both. While outside aid or even troops
can be helpful, lack of clear limits, in terms of either a realistic plan for
victory or exit strategy, may find the foreign helper “taking over” the
local war, and being sucked into a lengthy commitment , thus providing the
guerrillas with valuable propaganda opportunities as the stream of dead
foreigners mounts. Such scenario occurred with United States in Vietnam and
since 2003 – in Iraq.
11. A key factor in guerrilla strategy is a drawn-out, protracted conflict,
which wears down the will of the opposing counter-insurgent forces.
Democracies are especially vulnerable to the factor of time , but the
counter-insurgent force must allow enough time to get the job done.


1.Encirclement, which is designed to cut off all ground routes for escape and
reinforcement of the encircled force (darkness recommended) combined with
combined with air assault, artillery and airborne troops. And — it’s good
to divide the enemy while encircling.

Encirclement offers the best chance to fix guerrilla forces in position and
achieve decisive results. The battalion and larger units will usually plan
and conduct encirclements. The company and smaller units normally do not have
the manpower and command and control capability to execute encirclements
except as part of a larger force. Encirclements require accurate intelligence
on the location of guerrilla elements. Since it requires a major portion of
the counterguerrilla force to execute this maneuver, it is usually targeted
against large guerrilla forces or guerrilla base complexes, a series of
smaller base camps clustered within area. Planning, preparation and execution
are aimed at encircling the guerrilla force rapidly. Maximum security and
surprise can be gained by occupying the initial encirlclement positions
during darkness. In large operations, air assault and airborne troops add
speed and surprise to the operation. Positions are occupied simultaneously in
order to block escape. If simultaneous occupation is not possible, probable
escape routes are covered first. Initial occupation is the most critical
period of the operation. When the guerrillas become aware that they are being
encircled, they will probably probe for gaps or attack weak points and
attempt to break out.

Encircling units provide strong combat patrols far to their front to give
early warning of attempted breakouts. Mobile reserves are positioned to
counter a breakout and to reinforce difficult areas such as broken terrain or
areas with caves, tunnels or fortification complexes. Indirect fire support
can serve to cloak an encirclement by gaining and holding the guerrillas’
attention. Fires are planned in detail to support the encirclement. Following
completion of the encirclement, the circle is contracted to capture or
destroy the guerrilla force. AS the circle is contracted, units may be
removed from the line and added to the reserve. Against small guerrilla
forces, the encircled area may be cleared by contraction and a final sweep.
Against larger guerrilla forces, however, at some point, some action other
than contraction will be required. One technique consists of driving a wedge
through the guerrilla force to divide it and then destroying the guerrillas
in each subarea. Another technique, employed after some degree of
contraction, is to employ a blocking force on one or more sides of the
perimeter while the remainder of the encircling force drives the guerrillas
against blocking force. Either element may accomplish the actual destruction.
The technique is effective when the blocking force can be located on, or
immediately in the rear of, a natural terrain obstacle.

2. Search (of a village), which might be done in different ways:
- assemble inhabitants in a central location (if they are hostile) and then
start the operation
- restrict inhabitants to their homes or control the heads of households (and
take other family members to a central location) and then start the convoy
security operation, which is one of your top priorities.

Think about ambushes and mines on the route all the time and place a strong
attack element at the rear of the convoy where it has maximum flexibility in
moving forward to attack guerrillas attempting to ambush the head or center
of the convoy. At the first indication of an ambush vehicles have to move out
of the killing zone (do not drive to roadsides or shoulders, which may be
mined). A security team immediately returns fire from inside vehicles to
cover dismounting personnel (if you have to stop) and then dismounts last
under cover of the fire by those who dismounted first. Upon dismounting,
personnel caught in a killing zone open fire and immediately assault toward
the ambush force. Any movements of the troops and supplies are planned and
conducted as tactical operations with effective front, flank and rear

Search techniques in built-up areas are required when you search either a
few isolated huts or buildings , or for searching well-developed urban
sections. Procedure :

a)divide the area to be searched into zones, and assign a search party to
each. A search party consists of a search element (to conduct the search), a
security element (to encircle the area and prevent entrance and exit, and to
secure open areas), and a reserve element (to assist , as required). Then the
search element conducts the mission assigned for the operation. Normally it
is organized into special teams. The security element surrounds the area
while the search element moves in. Members of the security element orient
primarily upon evaders from the populated area; however, they can cut off any
insurgents trying to reinforce. Checkpoints and roadblocks are established.
Subsurface routes of escape, such as subways and sewers, must be considered
when operating in cities. The reserve element is a mobile force within a
nearby area. Its specific mission is to assist the other two elements should
they meet resistance they cannot handler. In addition, it is capable of
replacing or reinforcing either of the other two elements should the need
b)consider any enemy material found, including propaganda signs and leaflets,
to be booby-trapped until inspection proves it is safe.
c) thoroughly search underground and underwater areas. Any freshly excavated
ground can be a hiding place. Use mine detectors to locate metal objects
underground and underwater.
d) deploy rapidly, especially when a guerrilla force is still in the area to
be searched. The entire area to be searched is surrounded simultaneously. If
this is not possible, observed fire must cover that portion not covered by


An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position upon a moving or
temporary halted target. Ambushes give the counter-guerrilla force several

a) an ambush does not require ground to be seized or held
b) smaller forces with limited weapons and equipment can harass or destroy
larger, better armed forces
c) guerrillas can be forced to engage in decisive combat at unfavorable times
and places
d) guerrillas can be denied freedom of movement and deprived of weapons and
equipment that are difficult to replace.

Well-planned and well-executed ambushes is the most successful operational
technique employed against guerrillas. It is an effective technique to
interdict movement guerrilla forces within an area. Selection of the site is
a key step in developing a well-organized ambush.
Ambushes are executed to reduce the guerrilla’s overall combat
effectiveness. Destruction is the primary purpose of an ambush since
guerrillas killed or captured, and equipment and supplies destroyed or
captured, critically affect the guerrilla force. Harassment, the secondary
purpose, diverts guerrillas from other missions. A series of successful
ambushes causes the guerrilla force to be less aggressive and more defensive,
to be apprehensive and overly cautious, and to be reluctant to go on patrols
and move in convoys or in small groups.
There are two types of ambushes. A point ambush involves patrol elements
deployed to support the attack of a single killing zone. An area ambush
involves patrol elements deployed as multiple, related, point ambushes. An
ambush is categorized as either hasty or deliberate. A hasty ambush is an
immediate action drill, an action of a combat patrol with little or no
information. When information does not permit detailed planning required for
a deliberate ambush, a hasty ambush is planned. In this case, ambush patrol
plans and prepares to attack the first suitable guerrilla force. A deliberate
ambush is planned as a specific action against a specific target. Detailed
information of the guerrilla force is required: size, nature, organization,
armament, equipment, route and direction of movement, and time the force will
reach or pass certain points on its route. Deliberate ambushes are planned
when reliable information is received on the intended movement of a specific
force; patrols, convoys, carrying parties or similar forces establish
patterns of size, time and movement sufficient to permit detailed planning
for the ambush.

Basic elements of an ambush are:

1.Surprise. It has to be achieved or else the attack is not an ambush.
Surprise, which distinguishes an ambush from other forms of attack, allows
the ambush force to seize and retain control of the situation. Surprise is
achieved by careful planning, preparation and execution. Guerrillas are
attacked in a manner they least expect.
2.Coordinated fires. All weapons, including mines and demolitions, are
positioned, and all direct and indirect fires are coordinated to achieve
isolation of the kill zone to prevent escape or reinforcement; surprise
delivery of a large volume of concentrated fires into the kill zone to
inflict maximum damage so the target can be assaulted and destroyed.
3.Control. Close control is maintained during movement to, occupation of, and
withdrawal from the ambush site. The ambush commander’s control of all
elements is critical at the time of target approach. Control measures provide
for early warning of target approach, withholding fire until the target moves
into the kill zone, opening fire a the proper time, initiating appropriate
actions if the ambush is prematurely detected, lifting or shifting supporting
fires when the ambush includes assault of the target, timely and orderly
withdrawal to an easily recognized rallying point.

Planning provides for simplicity, type of ambush and deployment. The attack
may be by fire only (harassing ambush) or may include assault of the target
(destruction ambush). The force is tailored for its mission. Two men may be
adequate for a harassing ambush. A destruction ambush may require the entire
unit (squad, platoon, company).
An ambush patrol is organized in the same manner as other combat patrols to
include headquarters, an assault element, a support element and a security
element. The assault and support are the attack force; the security element
is the security force. When appropriate, the attack force is further
organized to provide a reserve force. When an ambush site is to be occupied
for an extended period, double ambush forces may be organized. One ambush
force occupies the site while the other rests, eats and tends to personal
needs at the objective rallying point or other concealed location. They
alternate after a given time, which is usually 8 hours. If the waiting period
is over 24 hours, three ambush forces may be organized.
The selection of equipment and supplies needed is based on the mission,
size of guerrilla force, means of transportation, distance and terrain,
weight and bulk of equipment. A primary route is planned which allows the
unit to enter the ambush site from the rear. The kill zone is not entered if
entry can be avoided. If the kill zone must be entered to place mines or
explosives, care is taken to remove any tracks or signs that might alert the
guerrillas and compromise the ambush. If mines, mantraps or explosives are to
be placed on the far side, or if the appearance of the site might cause the
guerrillas to check it, then a wide detour around the killing zone is made.
Here, too, care is taken to remove any traces which might reveal the ambush.
Also, an alternate route from the ambush site is planned.
Maps and aerial photos are used to analyze the terrain. As far as possible,
so-called “idea” ambush sites are avoided. Alert guerrillas are
suspicious of these areas, avoid them and increase vigilance and security
when they must be entered. Considering this, an ambush site must provide
fields of fire, concealed positions, canalization of the guerrillas into the
killing zone, covered routes of withdrawal ( to enable the ambush force to
break contact and avoid pursuit), no-exit route for the guerrilla force.
Ambush force, as a rule occupies the ambush site at the latest possible time
permitted by the tactical situation and the amount of site preparation
required. This not only reduces the risk of discovery but also reduces the
time that soldiers must remain still and quiet in position.
The unit moves into the ambush site from the rear. Security elements are
positioned first to prevent surprise while the ambush is being established.
Automatic weapons are then positioned so that each can fire along the entire
killing zone. If this is not possible, they are given overlapping sectors of
fire so the entire killing zone is covered. The unit leader then selects his
position, located where he can see when to initiate the ambush. Claymore
mines, explosives and grenade launchers may be used to cover any dead space
left by the automatic weapons. All weapons are assigned sectors of fire to
provide mutual support. The unit leader sets a time by which positions are to
be prepared. The degree of preparation depends on the time allowed. All men
work at top speed during the allotted time. Camouflage is very important –
each soldier must be hidden from the target and each one has to secure his
equipment to prevent noise. At the ambush site, positions are prepared with
minimal change in the natural appearance of the site. All debris resulting
from preparation of positions is concealed. Movement is kept to a minimum and
the number of men moving at a time is closely controlled. Light discipline is
rigidly enforced at night.

Point ambush
A point ambush, whether independent or part of an area ambush, is
positioned along the expected route of approach of the guerrilla force.
Formation is important because, to a great extent, it determines whether a
point ambush can deliver the heavy volume of highly concentrated fire
necessary to isolate, trap and destroy the guerrillas. The formation to be
used is determined by carefully considering possible formations and the
advantages and disadvantages of each in relation to terrain, conditions of
visibility, forces, weapons and equipment ease or difficulty of control,
force to be attacked and overall combat situation.

1.Line formation.
The attack element is deployed generally parallel to the guerrilla
force’s route of movement (road, trail, stream). This positions the attack
element parallel to the long axis of the killing zone and subjects the
guerrilla force to heavy flanking fire. The size of the force that can be
trapped in the killing zone is limited by the area which the attack element
can effectively cover with highly concentrated fire. The force is trapped in
the killing zone by natural obstacles, mines, demolitions, and direct and
indirect fires. A disadvantage of the line formation is the chance that
lateral dispersion of the force may be too big for effective coverage. The
line formation is appropriate in close terrain that restricts guerrilla
maneuver and in open terrain where one flank is restricted by mines,
demolitions or mantraps. Similar obstacles can be placed between the attack
element and the killing zone to provide protection from guerrilla
counter-ambush measures. When a destruction ambush is deployed in this
manner, access lanes are left so that the force in the killing zone can be
assaulted. The line formation can be effectively used by a “rise from the
ground ambush” in terrain seemingly unsuitable for ambush. An advantage of
the line formation is its relative ease of control under all conditions of

The L-formation is a variation of the line formation. The long side of the
attack element is parallel to the killing zone and delivers flanking fire.
The short side of the attack element is at the end of, and at right angles
to, the killing zone and delivers enfilading fire that interlocks with fire
from the other leg. This formation is flexible. It can be established on a
straight stretch of a trail or stream or at a sharp bend in a trail or
stream. When appropriate, fire from the short leg can be shifted to parallel
the long leg if the guerrilla force attempts to assault or escape in the
opposite direction. In addition, the short leg prevents escape in that
direction or reinforcement from that direction.

The Z-shaped formation is another variation of the L-formation. The attack
force is deployed as in the L-formation but with an additional side so that
the formation resembles the letter Z. The additional side may serve to engage
a force attempting to relieve or reinforce the guerrillas, restrict a flank,
prevent envelopment (of the ambush force), seal the end of the killing zone.

The attack element is deployed across, and at right angles to, the route of
movement of the hostile force so that the attack element and the target form
the letter T. This formation can be used day or night to establish a purely
harassing ambush, and at night to establish an ambush to interdict movement
through open, hard-to-seal areas (such as rice paddies). A small unit can use
the T-formation to harass, slow and disorganize a larger force. When the lead
guerrilla elements are engaged, they will normally attempt to maneuver right
or left to close with the ambush force. Mines, mantraps and other obstacles
placed to the flanks of the killing zone slow the guerrilla’s movement and
permit the unit to deliver heavy fire and then withdraw without becoming
decisively engaged. The T-formation can be used to interdict small groups
attempting night movement across open areas. For example, the attack element
may be deployed along a rice paddy dike with every second member facing in
the opposite direction. The attack of a force approaching from either
direction requires only that every second member shift to the opposite side
of the dike. Each member fires only to his front and only when the target is
at a close range. Attack is by fire only, and each member keeps the guerrilla
force under fire as long as it remains to his front. If the force attempts to
escape in either direction along the dike, each member takes it under fire as
it comes into his vicinity. The T-formation is effective at halting
infiltration. It has one chief disadvantage: there is a possibility that
while spread out the ambush will engage a superior force. Use of this
formation must, therefore, fit the local enemy situation.

The V-shaped attack element is deployed along both sides of the guerrilla
route of movement so that it forms a V. Care is taken to ensure that neither
group (or leg) fires into the other. This formation subjects the guerrilla to
both enfilading and interlocking fire. The V-formation is suited for fairly
open terrain but can also be used in the jungle. When established in the
jungle, the legs of the V close in as the lead elements of the guerrilla
force approach the apex of the V, elements then open fire from close range.
Here, even more than in open terrain, all movement and fire is carefully
coordinated and controlled to ensure that the fire of one leg does not
endanger the other. Wider separation of the elements makes this formation
difficult to control, and there are fewer sites that favor its use. Its main
advantage is that it is difficult for the guerrilla to detect the ambush
until well into the killing zone.

6.Triangle formation.
Closed triangle. The attack element is deployed in 3 groups, positioned so
they form a triangle (or closed V). An automatic weapon is placed at each
point of the triangle and positioned so that it can be shifted quickly to
interlock with either of the others. Elements are positioned so that their
fields of fire overlap. Mortars may be positioned inside the triangle . When
deployed in this manner, the triangle ambush becomes a small unit strongpoint
which is used to interdict night movement through open areas, when guerrilla
approach is likely to be from any direction. The formation provides all-round
security, and security elements are deployed only when they can be positioned
so that, if detected by an approaching target, they will not compromise the
ambush. Attack is by fire only, and the target is allowed to approach within
close range before the ambush force opens fire. Advantages include ease of
control, all-round security, and guerrillas approaching from any direction
can be fired on by at least two automatic weapons. Disadvantages include the
requirement for an ambush force of platoon size or larger to reduce the
danger of being overturn by a guerrilla force; one or more legs of the
triangle may come under guerrilla enfilade fire; and lack of dispersion,
particularly at the points, increases danger from guerrilla mortar fire.

Open triangle (harassing ambush). This variation of the triangle ambush is
designed to enable a small unit to harass, slow, and inflict heavy casualties
upon a larger force without being decisively engaged. The attack group is
deployed in 3 elements, positioned so that each element becomes a corner of a
triangle containing the killing zone. When the guerrillas enter the killing
zone, the element to the guerrillas’ front opens fire on the lead
guerrillas. When the guerrillas counterattack, the element withdraws and an
assault element to the flank opens fire. When this group is attacked, the
element to the opposite flank opens fire. This process is repeated until the
guerrillas are pulled apart. Each element reoccupies its position, if
possible, and continues to inflict maximum damage without becoming decisively

Open triangle (destruction ambush). The attack group is again deployed in 3
elements , positioned so that each element is a point of the triangle, 200 to
300 meters apart. The killing zone is the area within the triangle. The
guerrillas are allowed to enter the killing zone; the nearest element attacks
by fire. As the guerrillas attempt to maneuver or withdraw, the other
elements open fire. One or more assault elements, as directed, assault or
maneuver to envelop or destroy the guerrillas. As a destruction ambush, this
formation is suitable for platoon-size or larger units; a unit smaller than a
platoon would be in danger of being overrun. Also, control in assaulting or
maneuvering is difficult. Close coordination and control are necessary to
ensure that assaulting or maneuvering elements are not fired by another
party; and the ambush site must be a fairly level, open area that provides
(around its border) concealment for the ambush elements (unless it is a
“rise” from the ground” ambush).

7.Box formation.
This formation is similar in purpose to the open triangle ambush. The unit
is deployed in 4 elements positioned so that each element becomes a corner of
a square or rectangle containing the killing zone. It can be used as a
harassing ambush or a destruction ambush in the same manner as the two
variations of the open triangle ambush.

Area ambush

Killing zone. A point ambush is established at a site having several trails
or other escape routes leading away from it. The site may be a water hole,
guerrilla campsite, or known rendezvous point, or a frequently traveled
trail. This site is the central killing zone.

Area ambush” multiple point.

Point ambushes are established along the trails or other escape routes
leading away from the central killing zone. The guerrilla force, whether a
single group or several parties approaching from different directions, is
permitted to move to the central killing zone. Outlying ambushes do not
attack (unless discovered). The ambush is initiated when the guerrillas move
into the central killing zone. When the guerrillas break contact and attempt
to disperse, escaping portions are intercepted and destroyed by the outlying
ambushes. The multiple point ambush increases casualties and harassment and
produces confusion.

This version of the area ambush is best suited in terrain where movement is
largely restricted to trails. It provides best results when established as a
deliberate ambush. When there is not sufficient intelligence for a deliberate
ambush, an area ambush of opportunity (hasty ambush) may be established. The
outlying ambushes are permitted to attack guerrillas approaching the central
killing zone, if the guerrilla force is small. If it is too large for the
particular outlying ambush, the guerrillas are allowed to continue and they
are attacked in the central killing zone.

Area ambush: “baited trap”.

A variation of the area ambush. A central killing zone is established along
the guerrilla’s route of approach. Point ambushes are established along the
routes over which units relieving or reinforcing the guerrilla will have to
approach. The guerrilla force in the central killing zone serves as a
“bait” to lure relieving or reinforcing guerrilla units into the kill
zones of the outlying ambushes. A friendly force can also be used as the
“bait”. The outlying point ambushes need not be strong enough to destroy
their targets. They may be small harassing ambushes that delay, disorganize
and cause casualties by successive contacts.

This version can be varied by using a fixed installation as “bait” to
lure relieving or reinforcing guerrilla units into the killing zone to
overcome the installation or may use it as a ruse. These variations are best
suited for situations where routes of approach for relieving or reinforcing
guerrilla units are limited to those favorable for ambush.

Unusual ambush techniques

Spider hole ambush. This point ambush is designed for open areas that lack
cover and concealment and other features normally desirable in a “good”
ambush site. The attack element is deployed in the formation best suited to
the overall situation. The attack element is concealed in the “spider
hole” type of covered foxhole. Soil is carefully removed and positions
camouflaged. When the ambush is initiated, the attack element members throw
back the covers and rise from the ground to attack. This ambush takes
advantage of the tendency of patrols and other units, to relax in areas that
do not appear to favor ambush. The chief advantage is that the ambush element
is vulnerable if detected prematurely.

Demolition ambush. Dual primed, electrically detonated mines or demolition
charges are planted in the area over which a guerrilla force is expected to
pass. This may be a portion of as road or trail, an open field, or any area
that can be observed from a distance. Activating wires are run to a
concealed observation point sufficiently distant to ensure safety of the
ambush element. As large a force as desired or necessary can be used to mine
the area. The ambush element remains to fire the charges, other personnel
return to the unit. When a guerrilla force enters the mined area (killing
zone), the element on site detonates the explosives and withdraws immediately
to avoid detection and pursuit.

Special ambush situation. Attacks against columns protected by armored
vehicles depend on the type and location of armored vehicles in a column, and
the weapons of the ambush force. If possible, armored vehicles are destroyed
or disabled by fire or antitank weapons, landmines and Molotov cocktails, or
by throwing hand grenades into open hatches. An effort is made to immobilize
armored vehicles at a point where they are unable to give protection to the
rest of the convoy and where they will block the route of other supporting
vehicles. In alternate bounds, all except the first two vehicles keep their
relative places in the column. The first two vehicles alternate as lead
vehicles on each bound. Each covers the bound of the other. This method
provides more rapid advance than movement by successive bounds but is less
secure’ it doers not allow soldiers in the second vehicle enough time to
thoroughly observe the terrain to the front before passing the first vehicle.
Security is obtained by the vehicle commander who assigns each soldier a
direction of observation: to the front, flank(s) or rear. This provides each
vehicle with some security against surprise fire from every direction and
provides visual contact with vehicles to the front and rear. For maximum
observation, all canvas is removed from the vehicles.

Action at danger areas. The commander of the leading vehicle immediately
notifies the unit leader when he encounters an obstacle or other danger area.
Designated soldiers reconnoiter these places under cover of the weapons in
the vehicle. Obstacles are bypassed, if possible. When they cannot be
bypassed, they are cautiously removed. Side roads intersecting the route of
advance are investigated. Soldiers from one vehicle secure the road junction;
one or two vehicles investigate the side road. The amount of reconnaissance
of side roads is determined by the patrol leader’s knowledge of the
situation. Men investigating side roads do not, however, move past supporting
distance of the main body of the patrol. Bridges, road junctions, defiles and
curves (that deny observation beyond the turn) are danger areas. Soldiers
dismount and take advantage of available cover and concealment to investigate
these areas. The vehicle is moved off the road into a covered or concealed
position; weapons from the vehicle cover the advance of the investigating

Ambush during darkness is difficult to control, bur darkness increases the
security of the ambush party and the confusion of those being ambushed.

4. Roadblocks and checkpoints. Element of the checkpoint force has to be
positioned and concealed at appropriate distance from the checkpoint to
prevent the escape of any vehicle or person attempting to turn back.

It’s necessary to maintain a continuous check on road movement to
apprehend suspects and to prevent smuggling of controlled items. Since
checkpoints cause considerable inconvenience and even fear, it’s important
that the civil population understands that checkpoints are a preventive and
not a punitive measure. Checkpoints may be deliberate or hasty. The
deliberate checkpoint is positioned in a town or in the open country, often
on a main road. It acts as a useful deterrent to unlawful movement. The hasty
checkpoint is highly mobile and is quickly positioned in a town or in the
open country. The actual location of the hasty checkpoint is designed to
achieve quick success.

Concealment of a checkpoint is desirable, but often impossible. The
location should make it difficult for a person to turn back or reverse a
vehicle without being observed. Culverts, bridges or deep cuts may be
suitable locations. Positions beyond sharp curves have the advantage that
drivers do not see the checkpoint in sufficient time to avoid inspection.
Safety disadvantages may outweight the advantages of such positions. A
scarcity of good roads increases the effect of a well-placed checkpoint. A
checkpoint requires adequate troops to prevent ambush and surprise by a
guerrilla force.

5. Patrols. Used to saturate areas of suspected guerrilla activity, control
critical roads, maintain contact between villages and units, interdict
guerrilla routes of supply and communication, provide internal security in
rural and urban areas, locate guerrilla units and base camps. A patrol is a
detachment sent out by a larger unit to conduct a combat or reconnaissance
operation. Patrolling is used when limited (or no) intelligence on guerrilla
activity is available. Routes are planned carefully and coordinated with
higher, lower and adjacent units, to include air and ground fire support
elements and reserve forces. There are three key principles to successful
patrolling: detailed planning, thorough reconnaissance, all-round security..
It often happens that the patrol has to break the contact with a larger enemy
(to break contact use the clock system . the direction the patrol moves is
always 12 o’clock. When contact is made, the leader shouts a direction and
distance to move (such as “7 o’clock, 400 meters”. The leader can also
use the system to shift or direct fire at a certain location).

Saturation patrolling is extremely effective – patrols are conducted by
many lightly armed, small, fast-moving units and provide thorough area
coverage. Patrols move over planned and coordinated routes which are engaged
frequently to avoid establishing patterns. Use of saturation patrolling
results in the sustained denial of an area to guerrilla forces as they seek
to avoid contact with the counter-guerrilla units. In addition to harassment
and discovery of guerrilla tactical forces, this technique provides an
opportunity to gain an intimate knowledge of the area of operations; a form
of reassurance to the local population that the government is concerned about
their protection and security; a means by which information about the
guerrilla can be obtained.

Watch out: guerillas usually try to cut the lines of communications by mining
roads, waterways and railways, or by ambushes located adjacent to them, blow
up bridges and tunnels.


Footprints. You can “read” the following by footprints:
- the direction and rate of movement of a party
- the number of persons in a party
- whether or not heavy loads are carried
- the sex of the members of the party
- whether the members of a party know they are being followed

If the footprints are deep and the pace is long , the party is moving
rapidly. Very long strides and deep prints, with toe prints deeper than heel
prints, indicate the party is running. If the prints are deep, short and
widely spaced, with signs of scuffing or shuffling, a heavy load is probably
being carried by the parson who left the prints. You can also determine a
person’s sex by studying the size and position of the footprints. Women
generally tend to be pigeon-toed, while men usually walk with their feet
pointed straight ahead or slightly to the outside. Women’s prints are
usually smaller than men’s, and their strides usually shorter. If a party
knows it is being followed, it may attempt to hide its tracks. Persons
walking backward have a short, irregular stride. The prints have and
unusually deep toe. The soil will be kicked in the direction of movement. The
last person in a group usually leaves the clearest footprints. Therefore, use
his prints as the key set.
Use the box method to count the number of persons in the group. Up to 18
persons can be counted. Use it when the key prints can be determined. To use
this method, identify a key print on a trail and draw line from its heel
across the trail. Then move forward to the key print of the opposite foot and
draw a line through its instep. This should form a box with the edges of the
trail forming two sides, and the drawn lines forming the other two sides.
Next, count every print of partial print inside the box to determine the
number of persons. Any person walking normally would have stepped in the box
at least one time. Count the key prints as one.
Also, you can track paying attention to such things as foliage, moss,
vines, sticks or rocks moved from their original places; stones and sticks
that are turned over; grass that is bent or broken in the direction of
Staining. A good example of staining is the mark left by blood from a
bleeding wound. You can determine the location of a wound on a man being
followed by studying the bloodstains. If the blood seems to be dripping
steadily, it probably came from a wound on his trunk. A wound in the lungs
will deposit bloodstains that are pink, bubbly, frothy. A bloodstain
deposited from a head wound will appear heavy, wet and slimy, like gelatin.
Abdominal wounds often mix blood with digestive juices so that the deposit
will have an odor, and the stains will be light in color.
Water in footprints in swampy ground may be muddy if the tracks are
recent. In time, however, the mud will settle and the water is clear. The
clarity of the water can be used to estimate the age of the prints. Normally,
the mud will clear in 1 hour, but that will vary with terrain.
If a party knows that you are tracking it, it will probably use camouflage
to conceal its movements and to slow and confuse you. Remember: a
well-defined approach that leads to the enemy will probably be mined,
ambushed or covered by snipers.

6. Aerial search. This technique has little value in areas of dense
vegetation. Use of search units mounted in armed helicopters should be
limited to those operations in which sufficient intelligence exists to
justify their use and then normally in conjunction with ground operations. In
ground search operations, helicopters drop off troops in an area suspected of
containing guerrillas. With the helicopters overmatching from the air, troops
search the area. Troops are then picked up and the process is repeated in
other areas.

7.Raid. It is an operation involving a swift penetration of hostile territory
to secure information, harass the guerrilla or destroy the guerrilla force
and its installation. Raids are usually targeted against single, isolated
guerrilla base camps. To assist in attaining surprise, the raiding force uses
inclement weather, limited visibility, or terrain normally considered
impassable. If night airborne or air assault raids are conducted, the force
must be accurately inserted and oriented on the ground. Air assault forces
supported by armed helicopters offer infinite possibilities for conducting
raids. This type of force can move in, strike the objective and withdraw
without extensive preparation or support from other sources.

8. Crowd dispersal.

9. Assassination of the guerrilla leader.

10. Taking hostages to press guerrillas.

11. Organization of false guerrilla units.

Meanwhile the enemy will attempt to engage you in locations where your fire
would endanger civilians or damage their property. You have to match the size
of the guerrilla unit. Employing a large force to counter a smaller one is
inefficient because it compromises the chance of achieving surprise.

Psychological Operations

Psychological operations (PSYOP) in foreign internal defense include
propaganda and other measures to influence the opinions, emotions, attitudes,
and behavior of hostile, neutral, or friendly groups to support the
achievement of national objectives. There are 5 major target groups for
1. Insurgents. The major PSYOP objective here is to discredit the insurgents
and isolate them from he population. The most important direction of attack
is against their morale. Themes should publicize and exploit differences
between cadre, recruits, supporters, and the local population. Other themes
might stress lack of support, isolation, homesickness, and hardship. Amnesty
programs are often useful in neutralizing insurgents, and they are most
effective when they are well publicized, directed against lower ranking
members of the insurgency, and offer sufficient reason and benefits for
quitting the unit. These programs do, however, have several disadvantages:
they recognize the insurgents as a legitimate political force, they forgo
punishment of anyone accepting amnesty, and they increase the image of the
insurgents’ threat.
2. The population supporting the insurgents. You have to achieve withdrawal
of support for the insurgents and a total defection. Propaganda should
highlight the insurgents shortcomings, ultimate government victory,
government successes, and the practical advantages of surrendering or of
accepting amnesty. Sometimes, displays of military might are used; invading
forces may assemble and parade through the streets of conquered towns,
attempting to demonstrate the futility of any further fighting. These
displays may also include public executions of enemy soldiers, resistance
fighters, and other conspirators. Particularly in antiquity, the death or
imprisonment of a popular leader was sometimes enough to bring about a quick
surrender. However, this has often had the unintended effect of creating
martyrs around which popular resistance can rally.
3. The uncommitted population. The major mission here is to build national
morale, unity, and confidence in the government. There should also be a major
effort to win popular acceptance of the government force, and convince the
people that government programs serve their interests, the government forces
can protect them, ultimate government victory is assured. This may be
accomplished through re-education, allowing conquered citizens to
participate in their government, or, especially in impoverished or besieged
areas, simply by providing food, water and shelter.
4. Government personnel. When targeting government personnel, seek to
maintain loyalties and develop policies and attitudes which will result in
group members who will realize the importance of popular support, promote
public welfare and justice, take action to eliminate the basic causes of the
subversive insurgency, and protect the population. You have to indoctrinate
the host country security and military forces regarding the importance of the
civilian population support. When government personnel interact with neutral
and non-hostile elements of the population, the emphasis should be positive
and constructive.
5. Foreign audiences. There are two major groups to be addressed: neutral
nations and hostile nations. For neutral nations, the purpose of
psychological operations is to achieve friendly neutrality or active support
for your side. For hostile powers, the major objective of these operations is
to influence public opinion against involvement in supporting the insurgency.
Besides, you have to use psychological operations to establish and maintain a
favorable image of our country. The themes most useful in establishing that
image are that the US presence is requested by the host country government,
it is legal and necessary, it is temporary, and it is advisory. Intelligence
operations are facilitated by employing psychological operation media to
inform the people that they should report to the proper authority information
pertaining to strangers, suspicious persons, and guerrilla activities.
Posters and leaflets provide definite instruction as to persons and places
that are available to receive the information (indicate what rewards are


The Viet Cong used “hit and run” attacks involving a small group ,
usually hiding in ambush and attacking a larger force, only to retreat
seconds later. This reduced the advantages of the conventional force’s
advanced weapon systems. It gave an ambushed squad no time to call in
artillery or air strike. Booby traps ( like simple spikes, incorporated into
various types of traps , for example, in camouflaged pit into which a man
might fall) were another common tactic among guerrillas. Grenade traps
(poised with the pin removed) were also used. Moving them would take the
pressure off the lever, causing the grenades to explode. Camouflage was very
important, and fighters travelled in small groups, often wearing civilian
clothes to make it difficult for American soldiers to know who they were.
Often, they would in tunnels underground. Tunnels and “spider holes” were
often used to spring ambushes on American troops. The Vietcong would wait for
part of American formation to pass before coming out of the ground and
opening fire. Before the Americans had a chance to realize where the fire
came from, the Vietcong would duck back into the trenches. This often caused
fratricide (friendly fire incident) because soldiers who were ambushed would
fire back behind them, hitting other American patrols. American troops,
usually assigned to Vietnam for a one-year tour of duty, found themselves
ill-trained to wage a war against a mostly invisible enemy.


When the Stinger missile was introduced to Mujahideen, they began to ambush
Soviet helicopters and fixed wing aircraft at airfields. The Stinger was
effective only up to 15,000 feet (4,600 m), so Mujahideen would attack
aircraft as they were landing or taking off. Soviets modified their tactics:
helicopters stayed over friendly forces, fixed wing aircraft began flying
higher, and armor and electronic defense systems were added to aircraft to
help protect them from Stinger. Also, Spetsnaz ( Special Forces) were used
extensively. They would be flown into areas where Mujahideen often passed,
had been seen or were ambushing someone. Tanks and aircraft were of
comparatively little use. The only technology with a significant impact on
Mujahideen were land mines and helicopters. As the Soviets got stalled , they
began punishing the local population for supporting Mujahideen. It was not
uncommon for Soviet helicopters to raze an Afghan village in retaliation for
an attack against Soviet soldiers. They also dropped mines from aircraft in
fields and pastures and shot livestock with machineguns. Another common
tactic was to cordon off and search villages for Mujahideen.

Chechnya (Russia)

The conflict between Russia and Chechen terrorists has been mostly a
guerilla war. Most fighting was done with the support of armored vehicles,
artillery and aircraft, rather than infantry. Russian soldiers were not
prepared for urban warfare in Grozny (the capital of Chechnya). Terrorists
would hide on the top floors and basements of buildings armed with small arms
and anti-tank weapons. The Russians came in with convoys of armored vehicles
which were unprepared for the tactics the terrorists would use. Chechen
ambush tactics were planned, and involved destroying the first and the last
vehicle (armored personnel carrier or a tank) in the column. This was done by
either rocket propelled grenade(RPG) or improvised explosive device. If the
initial attack was successful, the rest of the convoy would be trapped in
between. Later Russians used artillery and airstrikes more extensively.
Terrorists changed their urban combat tactics and used fire-teams of three
fighters : a machine gunner, a sniper and a fighter armed with rocket
propelled grenade. As a result, a very small and mobile fire-team could meet
any potential sizable threat with great effectiveness. Chechen snipers used
to wound Russian soldiers and pick off their rescuers. They also shot off
antennas from the moving armored personnel carriers – since this was often
the only means of communication with the command center, the troops inside
would end up isolated and attacked with RPG or by the sniper as they tried to
repair the antenna. As Russia controlled more area, ambushes gave place to
roadside bombings, and these usually involved modified mines and improvised
explosive devices.

U.S. – Iraq war (2003-present)

Suicide bombers attack American soldiers at checkpoints, on patrols, on
their bases and in convoys. Iraqis used the same tactics Chechen terrorists
used against convoys.


Abwehr , a German intelligence organization from 1921 to 1944).

One of the known Abwehr’s successful actions was “Operation Nordpol”,
which was an operation against the Dutch underground network, which at the
time was supported by the British Special Operations Executive (SOE). In
March 1941, Abwehr forced a captured SOE radio operator to transmit messages
to Britain in a code that the Germans had obtained. Even though the operator
gave every indication that he was compromised, the receiver in Britain did
not notice that. Thus the Germans had been able to penetrate the Dutch
operation and for two years, capturing agents that were sent and sending
false intelligence and sabotage reports until the British caught on.
But in general Abwehr was not an effective organization, because much of its
intelligence deemed politically unacceptable to the German leadership. Then,
Wilhelm Canaris, the Abwehr Chief, was anti-Nazi - he personally gave false
information which discouraged Hitler from invading Switzerland and persuaded
Francisco Franco not to allow German forces to pass through Spain to invade
Gibraltar; he was involved in July 20,1944 assassination attempt on Hitler.

The incident which eventually resulted in the dissolution of the Abwehr is
known as the “Frau Solf Tea Party”, which took place on September
10,1943. Frau Johanna Solf, the widow of Dr.Wilhelm Solf, a former Colonial
Minister and ex-Ambassador to Japan, had been involved in the anti-Nazi
intellectual movement in Berlin. At a tea party hosted by her, a new member
was included ith circle, an attractive young Swiss doctor named Reckse (the
Gestapo agent), who reported to Gestapo on the tea party and turned over
several incriminating documents. The Solf circle was tipped off and had to
flee fo their lives, but they were all rounded up on January 12, 1944 and
executed, except Frau Solf and her daughter, the Countess Lagi Graffin von
Ballestrem. One of those executed was Otto Kiep, an official in the Foreign
Office, who had friends in the Abwehr, among whom were Erich Vermehren and
his wife, the former Countess Elizabeth von Pettenberg, who were stationed as
agents in Istanbul. Both were summoned to Berlin by the Gestapo in connection
with the Kiep case. Fearing for their lives, they contacted British and
defected. It was mistakenly believed in Berlin that the Vermehrens absconded
with Abwehr’s secret codes and turned them over to the British. Despite the
efforts of the Abwehr to shift the blame to the RSHA or even to the Foreign
Ministry, Hitler had had enough of Canaris and he told so Himmler twice. He
summoned Canaris for a final interview and accused him of allowing the Abwehr
to “fall into bits” – Canaris agreed that it was “not surprising”
as Germany was already losing the war. On February 18,1944 Hitler signed a
decree that abolished the Abwehr – it’s functions were taken over by the
RSHA. This action deprived the army of an intelligence service of its own
and strengthened Himmler’s control over the generals.

GRU ( Russian Army General Staff MAIN INTELLIGENCE AGENCY), Russia

The undercover residency is one of the basic forms of intelligence set-up
for the GRU abroad. The minimum number of staff for residency is two – the
resident and a radio/cipher officer. The resident is the senior
representative of the GRU in any given place and answerable to the head of
GRU only. He has the right to send any officer, including his own deputies,
out of the country immediately. He must have a minimum of three to five years
of successful work as an operational officer and three to five years as the
deputy resident before his appointment. A resident in a large residency will
hold the military rank of major-general, in small residences that of colonel.
In some very large residencies, and also where there is big activity on the
part of GRU illegals, there is a position called deputy resident for illegals
(the undercover residency and the illegal residency are completely separate,
but often the undercover residency is used to rescue illegals.
An illegal residency is an intelligence organization comprising a minimum of
two illegals, usually the resident and a wireless operator, and a small
number of agents (at least one) working for them. Gradually, as a result of
recruiting new agents, the residency may increase in size. More illegals may
be sent out to the resident, one of whom may become his assistant. The GRU
does not have large residences. Five illegals and eight to ten agents are
considered the maximum, but usually the residencies are much smaller than
this. In cases where the recruitment of new agents has gone well the GRU
divides the residency in two parts. Thereafter any contact between the two
new residencies is forbidden, so that if one residency is discovered the
other does not suffer.

Defense Intelligense Agency (DIA), USA

DIA is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the
Pentagon, with about 8000 people working worldwide. DIA has major operational
activities at the Pentagon, the Defense Intelligence Analysis Center, Bolling
Air Force Base in Washington,D.C., the Armed Forces Medical Intelligence
Center in Fort Detrick, Maryland, and the Missile and Space Intelligence
Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The DIA’s mission is to provide timely and
objective military intelligence to warfighters, policymakers, and force
planners. To help weapon systems planners and the Defense community, DIA
plays a major role in providing intelligence on foreign weapon systems.


Directorate for Human Intelligence
Defense Attache System
Strategic Support Branch (linguists, field analysts, case officers,
interrogation experts, technical specialists, special forces). Defense
Secretary Donald Rumsfeld created it to bypass the limitations of the CIA
after 9/11
Directorate for MASINT and Technical Collection
Collects measurements and signature intelligence which is any intelligence
that does not fit within the definitions of Signals Intelligence, Imagery
Intelligence, and Human Intelligence. This includes radar intelligence,
acoustic intelligence, nuclear intelligence, and chemical and biological
Directorate for Analysis.
Analyzes and disseminates finalized intelligence products for the DIA from
all sources as well as from partner Intelligence Community agencies. Analysts
focus on the military issues that may arise from political or economic events
in foreign countries and also analyze foreign military capabilities,
transportation systems, weapons of mass destruction, and missile systems, and
contribute to National Intelligence Estimates and to the President’s daily
briefing. Analysts serve DIA in all of the agency’s facilities as well as
in the field.
Directorate for Intelligence Joint Staff.
Advises and supports the Joint Chiefs of Staff with foreign military
intelligence for defense policy and war planning.


The United Arab Emirates, $10.4 billion

•288 Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile interceptors
•9 Patriot Fire Units, including 10 phased array radar sets, 10 engagement
control stations on trailers, and 37 launching stations.
•216 Guidance Enhanced Missile-T (GEM-T)
•224 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles
•200 Guided Bomb Unit Joint Direct Attack Munition Tail Kits
•More than 1,100 2,000-pound and 500-pound bombs.
Iraq ,$4.9 billion

•980 High Mobility Multi-Purpose Wheeled Vehicles
•123,544 M-16A4 rifles and various ammunition
•Upgrades for 30 UH-1 Huey helicopters, various armored vehicles, and
•Logistics support for three C-130E aircraft
•Various medical supplies, equipment, and training
•Miscellaneous spare parts and ammunition
Australia ,$3.76 billion

•24 F/A-18E/F Super Hornets
•Armaments for F/A-18E/F Super Hornets, including 47 AIM-9X SIDEWINDER
Taiwan ,$3.72 billion

•Upgrades and refurbishments for three existing Patriot anti-missile fire
•144 SM-2 Block IIIA STANDARD ship-based missiles
•12 P-3C anti-submarine aircraft with T-56 engines
•60 AGM-84L HARPOON Block II missiles
•218 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles and 235 AGM-65G2
Maverick missiles
Morocco $2.89 billion

•24 T-6B Texan aircraft
•24 F-16C/D Block 50/52 combat aircraft with engines
•60 M109A5 155mm self-propelled howitzers
Israel , $2.5 billion

•2,000 Radio Frequency TOW 2A anti-tank missiles
•1,700 HELLFIRE missiles of various types
•100 Patriot Guided Enhanced Missiles Plus (GEM+)
•90,000,000 gallons of JP-8 aviation fuel and 42,000,000 gallons of diesel
•200 AIM-120C-7 Advanced Medium-Range Air-to-Air Missiles
•500 AIM-9M SIDEWINDER missiles
•30 RGM-84L HARPOON Block II missiles
•3,500 MK-84 general purpose bomb units

Part IV. TOP

united anti-CIA file).

Chapter I. What Happened to Them?

Whenever somebody investigating an important murder or kidnapping starts to
get close to the truth, a hue and cry goes out labeling him a conspiracy
freak or an attention-seeker. Of course, some murders are the result of a
conspiracy or, if you prefer, a complex and highly-coordinated plan. For
professionals, this sort of business is normal and we use terms like
“case” or “file.” Since criminology was part of my education at a
special counter-espionage school and I understand perfectly well what kind of
operation is behind the fact and what crime is behind the evidence, I offer
some analysis not found in the many hundreds of books that struggle to
untangle this mystery, some analysis that might answer a few questions in the
minds of the Kennedy families and the British royal family, among others.

Case 1.

Name: Heinrich Muller. GESTAPO Chief, convicted war criminal (World War II).
Last seen: April 24, 1945

Question 1. What was the GESTAPO doing during World War II?
“The head of the Jewish section in the GESTAPO, and the man directly
responsible for carrying out the mass extermination program against the Jews
by GESTAPO, Obersturmbannfuehrer Eichmann, estimated in his report to Himmler
that 2,000,000 Jews had been killed by shootings, mainly by the Einsatz
Groups of the SIPO during the campaign in the East. This did not include the
estimated 4,000,000 sent by the GESTAPO for extermination in annihilation
camps.” — The International Military Tribunal, Nurnberg, 1946, Volume II,
Chapter XV, p. 282
Question 2. What happened to Heinrich Muller? US government agency officers
would not approve my private investigation of GESTAPO crimes and Heinrich
Muller’s post-war activity. That in itself is a strong suggestion that
Muller was secretly transferred to the USA and put to work for the CIA. And
it’s even understandable — the “cold war” needed his experience.
Question 3. Why hasn’t Henry Kissinger, the leader of the Bilderberg group
and one of the most influential US politicians, who knows the CIA perfectly
well, said anything about it?

Case 2.

Name: Marilyn Monroe. Movie star, drug addict, unbalanced personality with
four suicide attempts, sex maniac, a very lonely person with unhappy family
history and a “Communist” according to her FBI and CIA files.
Date of death: August 5, 1962, murdered.
Official version: Staged suicide with barbiturates overdose

· Marilyn had information on plans for the JFK assassination, and a lot of
people needed to have her silenced

Look, on August 1,1962 MarilynMonroe signed a $1,000,000 contract with the
20th Century Fox: $5000,000 for “Something Got to Give” and additional
$500,000 for a new musical “What a Way to Go” and then, four days later
she “committed suicide” ?
This case is a very special one. First, unlike other VIP murders, it’s
still not clear how she was killed; second, according to the People magazine
(1999), Marilyn is voted the Sexiest Woman of the Century.
Despite physical autopsy and toxicological tests, it’s still not clear
how she was killed; and given her links to the Kennedys as well as crime
leaders and others there are plenty of theories as to who needed her dead,
and why. In this way, her story resembles that of JFK’s murder.

The evidence allows for the following possibilities, and others as well,
which need not be mutually exclusive:

Mafia boss Sam Giancana killed Monroe to set up Robert Kennedy, who had
publicly declared war on organized crime
Joseph Kennedy, the two brothers’ father, hired Giancana to kill Monroe
because she was pregnant with Robert’s child and tried to blackmail him
The CIA killed Monroe to get even with JFK for the Bay of Pigs fiasco
(because her death could compromise him)
JFK gave the order to kill Monroe, because she knew too much about his murky
activities, and then he was killed by “Italian friends” of her former
husband Joe DiMaggio. (The 3 August 1962 CIA document, written two days
before Marilyn Monroe’s death, reveals that some high government officials
were in a state of extreme anxiety over the fact that Kennedy brothers (John
and Robert) had been imparting sensitive information to Marilyn, and that she
was writing a lot of it down her little red “diary of secrets”.

· [my view] Marilyn had information on plans for the JFK
assassination, and a lot of people needed to have her silenced

· The most popular version of Monroe’s death is connected to two
“probable” visits Attorney General Robert Kennedy and two other men made
that day, demanding her “diary” with notes about conversations with both
Kennedys regarding top secret national security matters. So, on August
4,1962 she refused to give her diary to Robert Kennedy. Heleft and the
witnesses stated that Marilyn was “scared out of her mind and at the same
time terribly angry”. Looks like she or somebody very close to her (a
child, born or adopted) were threatened. OK. Robert Kennedy was back the
same night and killed her injecting (using enema or suppositorium)
barbiturates overdose and staging a suicide.
First, Robert Kennedy wasn’t looking for a diary, tape or picture
– he was looking for something you can not copy. What was that ? Second,
Robert Kennedy knew through FBI and CIA surveillance that in March 1962 she
had a meeting in Mexico City with Frederick Field, her psychiatrist’s close
friend and American Communist Group leader, and talked to him on above
mentioned secret national security matters which is espionage. Robert Kennedy
did nothing to stopher – why ? Third, in 1955 Marilyn through her manager
applied for a visa in the Soviet Embassy in Washington,D.C., though she never
travelled to the USSR – why ? (Inside KGB rumors circulated about her
secret visit to the USSR and sex with the Soviet leader Nikita Kchrushchev
– it was a gift from President Kennedy).

Now, once again — what was Robert Kennedy looking for? If Senator Edward
Kennedy helps me to answer the question, we might come very close to
“cracking” the case.
I hate when big, strong and healthy men kill a woman and that’s against all
the rules — don’t kill kids and women. Trust me, I’ll get those guys
— dead or alive.

Case 3.

Name: John F. Kennedy. 35th American President
Date of death: April 4, 1963, murdered; shot by snipers.
Reason: His decision to liquidate the CIA.

Like Marilyn Monroe, John Kennedy was a sex maniac and that kind of activity
can upset a lot of people; that alone could have provided a motive for
murder, when you take a look at the endless list of his partners beginning
with movie stars like Marilyn Monroe, Sophia Loren, Audrey Hepburn, Judy
Campbell, Jayne Mansfield, and finishing with his wife’s press secretary,
his own secretaries and regular prostitutes like the above mentioned Ellen
Rometsch. Everybody who starts an “investigative” book on this case
dreams of putting a final dot and giving the ultimate explanation.
What is a conspiracy? It’s when you ask a simple question and nobody wants
to answer it. Besides, if you ask the wrong questions you get the wrong
answers, as with the Warren Commission. Let’s ask some good questions and
answer them ourselves. Actually, it doesn’t matter who was shooting -
Oswald or a can of soda. I have different questions.

Question 1. What would have happened if the snipers missed the target or
Kennedy survived, being merely wounded? A sniper is a human being - he makes
Answer. Quite possibly, Kennedy would have won the 1964 Presidential election
and then conceivably his brothers, Robert and Edward, would keep the Oval
Office until 1984 (count the years for yourself). No war in Vietnam. The CIA
would have been shut down. The FBI and Pentagon would have been “cleaned
up” and “cleaned out.”
Question 2. Why would the CIA, FBI and big business behind them, not to
mention others who had their eye on the Oval Office, take such a huge risk?
There was no risk at all — they used the "passive sabotage" method - you
don't touch those who want to kill President until they finish the job.
There was no “huge conspiracy with hundreds of people involved" - CIA
Director John McCone + FBI Director Edgar Hoover combination worked good
Question 3. Why was Kennedy murdered in public?
President Kennedy was a sick man, taking a lot of different pills every day.
He had Addison’s disease which, in addition to susceptibility to infection
can cause weakness, weight loss and low blood pressure; so he was taking
cortisone. For his back pain Dr. Max Jacobson injected him (and Jackie) with
a mixture of unspecified (!) multivitamins, hormones, steroids, enzymes, and
animal organ cells. Kennedy also used cocaine, marijuana, hashish and even
LSD, especially during dates with women, including prostitutes —- for many
people this was not a secret. There were enough opportunities to stage a
death in private.
But this had to be a public execution with a very clear message for the next
Presidents - “Don’t touch the CIA!” and it worked. Bill Clinton was
ready to follow Kennedy and fight CIA, “a state inside a state,” but
Jackie Kennedy gave him a nice tip. Hillary Clinton says so in her book,
Living History: “Jackie... she never came out and said it, but she meant
that he [Bill Clinton] might also be a target. ‘He has to be very
careful,’ she told me.“Very careful.”
Question 4. What was the rush?
Something extraordinary happened that forced the plotters’ hand and I think
most probably it was Kennedy’s decision to name Martin Luther King as his
running mate. President talked about it with his brother Robert and his
assistants - O’Brien and O’Donnell, and then there was a leak.

Ultimate questions.

The US Congress closed to the public 40,000 documents on the case, promising
to de-classify them in 40 years. In 2003 the US Congress (no doubt, under
Senator Edward Kennedy’s pressure), called for another 40 years. Why?
What’s behind all the above mentioned names? I wish we could live long
enough to find out.
President Bill Clinton visited President Kennedy’s grave on the first day
of his first presidency. Yet President Clinton, for whom President Kennedy
was an idol and an icon, did nothing during his 8-year-long chaos at the
White House to gain access for us to the above mentioned documents. Why?
And one more “why”: why did President Johnson order a halt to the
investigation on “Numec” and “Permindex” companies right after JFK
was killed? Those two companies allegedly delivered 280 kilograms of stolen
uranium to Israel, and Kennedy controlled the investigation himself.

Case 4.

Name: Martin Luther King, Jr. Pastor, prominent black civil rights leader.
Date of death: April 4, 1968, murdered; shot by a sniper.
Reason: Political popularity and his decision to campaign for the US

Question 1: What is the US military best kept secret? The “Alpha 184”

On April 4, 1968, Martin Luther King, Jr. was shot dead on the Lorraine Motel
balcony in Memphis, Atlanta. In a room in a house across the street the FBI
found fingerprints of a Missouri penitentiary fugitive, James Earl Grey, a
professional armed robber. He fled to Great Britain but was arrested in June
and extradited to the United States. He was sentenced to 99 years and died in
1998, claiming until his last days he was a patsy.
In 1967, a year before King was shot, Military Intelligence formed part of
the US Army Intelligence Command (USAINTC) based at Fort Holobird, Maryland.
Its task was to collect information on American citizens, including civil
rights leaders. USAINTC took control of seven of the eight existing Military
Intelligence Groups (MIGs) in the continental United States and Germany. The
eighth, the 902nd, was under the command of the Army’s Assistant Chief of
Staff for Intelligence Major General William Yarborough (in 1966-1968), the
founder of Green Berets. MIGs were responsible for audio and visual
surveillance and coordinated their work with FBI and CIA. The above mentioned
902nd MIG was a most secretive organization, inside of which there existed
the “Operation Detachment Alpha 184” team. On April 4, 1968 it was
deployed in Memphis.
Any further questions would have to be asked of the Defense Department.

Case 5. SPECIAL.

Name: Pope John Paul II (born Karol Wojtyla).
Date of assassination attempt: May 13, 1981; shot by a gunman.
Reason: Pope’s intent to investigate the illegal activity of the Vatican

On May 13, 1981 Pope John Paul II was shot and critically wounded by Mehmet
Agdca, a Turkish gunman, as he entered St. Peter’s Square to address the
audience. Agdca was caught and sentenced to life imprisonment. In 1983 John
Paul II visited the prison and spoke privately with Agdca for 20 minutes, and
after that made a statement: “What we talked about will have to remain a
secret between him and me. I spoke to him as a brother whom I have pardoned
and who has my complete trust.”

An Italian parliamentary commission, after its own investigation, concluded
that the Soviet Union was behind the attempt, in retaliation for Pope’s
support to “Solidarity,” the Polish anti-Communist workers’ movement.
Its report stated that the Bulgarian secret service was utilized to prevent
the Soviet Union’s role from being uncovered, but during his 2002 visit to
Bulgaria the Pope himself declared that this country had nothing to do with
the assassination attempt. Unless a lone, mad Turk picked up the gun on a
whim, there was a conspiracy involved. Who was behind it, and why?

File 1. The Vatican Bank, the first partner.

The Vatican Bank (Institute for Religious Works) is the central bank of Roman
Catholic Church; its CEO reports directly to a committee of cardinals and to
the Pope. It’s known that in the 1990s the Bank invested over $10 billion
in foreign companies. In 1968, due to a change in Italian financial
regulations which would have mandated more transparency — it began to
appear that the Bank was laundering money for big business. (The Bank was
supposed to funnel all profits directly and immediately to charity.) To
prevent a public scandal Pope Paul VI enlisted Michele Sindona as papal
finance advisor to sell off assets and move money overseas. Sindona had been
chiefly responsible for the massive influx of money when he began processing
the Gambino crime family’s heroin money (taking a 50% cut) through a shell
corporation “Mabusi.” This was accomplished with the help of another
banker, Roberto Calvi, who managed the Banco Ambrosiano. Both Sindona and
Calvi where members of “Propaganda Due” (P2) Masonic Lodge and close
friends to its headmaster, the neofascist Licio Gelli, who worked for
“Gladio”(see file #3). Sindona was poisoned in 1986 in prison in Italy,
and we’ll talk about Calvi too, don’t worry. When Pope John Paul I
succeeded Pope Paul VI on August 26, 1978 he ordered Cardinal Jean Villot,
papal Secretary of State and Head of papal Curia, to investigate the Vatican
Bank operations. Just 33 days later, after informing Villot that he was going
public with the scandal (and firing Villot, among others), John Paul I died.
The official cause of death was “possibly associated to a myocardial
infarction” (heart attack), though no autopsy was performed.
On October 22, 1978, Karol Wojtyla, 58, was inaugurated as Pope John Paul II.
The youngest pope in Roman Catholic Church history, he thought he would
strengthen his position first; but the explosive situation with the Vatican
Bank impelled him to act.

File 2. Banco Ambrosiano, the second partner.

The Vatican Bank was the above mentioned Banco Ambrosiano’s main
shareholder and knew well that its Chairman, Roberto Calvi, was funding P2.
In 1981 police raided the office of P2 Grandmaster Licio Gelli and found
evidence against Calvi, who was arrested and sentenced to four years in jail.
However, he was released pending an appeal, and kept his position in the
bank. On May 13, 1981, Pope John Paul II was shot in Rome, and survived. In
1982 it was discovered that Ambrosio Bank could not account for $1,287
billion. Calvi fled Italy on a false passport. His personal secretary,
Graziella Corrocher, left a note denouncing Calvi before jumping from her
office window to her death. On June 17, 1982, Calvi’s body was found
hanging beneath Blackfriars Bridge in London. His suit was stuffed with rocks
and a brick had been placed in his trousers. The British police treated his
death as suicide, but after 1992 exhumation concluded it was a murder. In
2003 City of London Police reopened the investigation.

File 3. “Gladio,” the third partner.

Mehmet Agdca was a member of the “Grey Wolves,” an ultra-nationalist
Turkish terror organization, infiltrated by “Gladio” — a CIA and NATO
sponsored super-secret paramilitary terror organization in Italy with
branches all over Western Europe. “Gladio” was a part of a clandestine
“stay-behind” operation to counter communist influence after World War
II, but like all other branches was actually never used “to resist Soviet
influence or invasion.” Still, the structures exist even now (what for?).
“Gladio’s” existence was acknowledged in 1990 by the head of the
Italian government, Giulio Andreotti. Further investigations revealed links
to neo-fascists, the mafia and law-breaking P2 Masonic Lodge. The following
was passed on November 22, 1990.

European Parliament Resolution on the “Gladio” Affair

A. Having regard to the revelation by several European governments of the
existence for 40 years of a clandestine parallel intelligence and armed
operations organization in several Member States of the Community,
B. Whereas for over 40 years this organization has escaped all democratic
controls and has been run by the secret services of the states concerned in
collaboration with NATO,
D. Whereas in certain Member States military secret services (or uncontrolled
of branches thereof) were involved in serious cases of terrorism and crime as
evidenced by various judicial inquiries,
E. Whereas these organizations operated and continue to operate completely
outside the law, since they are not subject to any parliamentary control and
frequently those holding the highest government and constitutional posts are
kept in the dark as to these matters,
F. Whereas the various “Gladio” organizations have at their disposal
independent arsenals and military resources which give them an unknown strike
potential, thereby jeopardizing the democratic structures of the countries in
which they are operating or have been operating,
G. Greatly concerned by the existence of decision-making and operational
bodies which are not subject to any form of democratic control and are of a
completely clandestine nature at a time when greater Community cooperation in
the field of security is a constant subject of discussion,
64. Condemns the clandestine creation of manipulative and operational
networks and calls for a full investigation into the nature, structure, aims
and all other aspects of these clandestine organizations or any splinter
groups, their use for illegal interference in the internal political affairs
of the countries concerned, the problem of terrorism in Europe and the
possible collusion of the secret services of Member States or third
65. Protests vigorously at the assumption by certain US military personnel at
SHAPE and NATO of the right to encourage the establishment in Europe of a
clandestine intelligence and operational network;
66. Calls on the governments of the Member States to dismantle all
clandestine military and paramilitary networks;
67. Calls on the judiciaries of the countries in which the presence of such
military organizations has been ascertained to elucidate fully their
composition and modus operandi and to clarify any action they may have taken
to destabilize the democratic structure of the Member States;
68. Requests all the Member States to take the necessary measures, if
necessary by establishing parliamentary committees of inquiry, to draw up
complete list of organizations active in this field, and at the same time to
monitor their links with the respective state intelligence services and their
links, if any, with terrorist action groups and/or other illegal practices;
69. Calls on the Council of Ministers to provide full information on the
activities of these secret intelligence and operational services;
70. Calls on its competent committee to consider holding a hearing in order
to clarify the role and impact of the ‘Gladio’ organization and any
similar bodies;
71. Instructs its President to forward this resolution to the Commission, the
Council, the Secretary-General of NATO, the governments of the Member States
and the United States Government.

By now the following code names of other “Gladio” branches are known:
SDRA 8 - in Belgium ,ABSALON - in Denmark, TD BJD - in Germany ,LOK - in
Greece , Stay-Behind - in Luxemburg , I&O - in Netherlands ,ROC - in Norway
,AGINTER - in Portugal , P26 - in Switzerland , Counter-Guerrilla - in Turkey
, OWSGV - in Austria

The code names of the branches in France, Finland, Spain and Sweden remain
unknown. In 1996, five years after the Soviet Union collapsed, Austrian
President Thomas Klestil and Chancellor Franz Vranitsky insisted that they
knew nothing of the existence of the secret, illegal CIA-NATO army and they
demanded that the United States launch a full-scale investigation into the
violation of Austria’s neutrality, which was denied by President Bill
Clinton. Was Mr. Clinton covering terrorists who tried to kill the Pope?

Case 6.

Name: Robert Kennedy, the U.S. Senator and 1968 presidential election
candidate, JFK brother.
Date of birth: November 20, 1925
Date of death: June 5, 1968
Method: shot by Palestinian immigrant Sirhan Sirhan, a psycho and a loser,
in Los Angeles Ambassador Hotel kitchen pantry one minute after Kennedy left
a ballroom celebration in the wake of winning the California Democratic
presidential primary. There was zero security. Thre’s also a theory of a
second gunman with a silenced pistol.
Reason: Candidate Robert Kennedy stated that investigation of the President
Kennedy’s assassination would be one of the most important issues in case
he was elected to the Oval Office.

Case 7. Ronald Brown, US Commerce Secretary.

Date of death: April 3, 1996, murdered. Method: staged air crash. Another 34
passengers also died, mostly businessmen and officials from the Commerce
Department, along with Jim Lewek, a CIA analyst, Nathaniel Nash, New York
Times reporter, and the crew. According to my take on the evidence, Brown was
most probably killed on board the plane before the crash and that means that
his death was “double guaranteed.”

Soon after the crash dispatcher at Croatia’s airport “committed
suicide,” supposedly because he felt guilty about the crash (no doubt it
was a staged suicide).

Reason: In 1993 Vice President Gore and Russian Prime Minister Chernomyrdin
signed a 20-year $12 billion deal under which Russia would ship its
weapons-grade uranium to the United States (the actual value of such an
amount of weapons-grade uranium, Russian experts calculate, would have been
$12 trillion. They call this supersecret agreement one of the “crimes of
the century.” Questions abound in any multibillion bribe with a former
Russian President and a former US President involved. Ronald Brown most
probably knew too much and tried to press Bill Clinton. (Besides, Brown was
already under investigation by a special investigator and was about to be
indicted with 54 others — and he spoke publicly of his willingness to
“make a deal” with the prosecutors. Once the background to the situation
is known, it becomes apparent he was not talking about the IRS. In a moment
we’ll also look at several Russians who tried to investigate this crime and
died mysteriously in Russia.

(There’s a very interesting Chinese “trace” too and his name is Wang
Jun, the son of the late PRC President Wang Zhen, was Chairman of the China
International Trade and Investment Company, the most powerful and visible
conglomerate in China and the President of Polytechnologies Corporation, an
arms-trading company and the largest and most profitable of the corporate
structures owned by Chinese army. Wang was publicly known in the United
States for his role in the 1996 presidential campaign finance scandal and
for Polytechnologies’ indictment stemming from its 1996 attempt to smuggle
2,000 Chinese AK-47 assault rifles into the United states. He attended the
White House “coffee” with President Clinton in February 1996 and met with
Commerce Secretary Ronald Brown the following day. He was also connected to
$600,000 in illegal campaign contributions made by Charlie Trie to the US
Democratic National Committee )

Bill Clinton in his over 1,000-page memoir My Life (2004) wrote nothing
about this “deal of a century.” Look,

“In the afternoon [April, 3, 1993] we [Clinton and Russian President
Yeltsin] agreed on a way to institutionalize cooperation, with a commission
headed by Vice President Gore and Russian Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin.
The idea was developed by Strobe [Talbott] and Georgi Mamedov, the Russian
Deputy Foreign Minister, and it worked better than any of us could have
imagined, thanks largely to the consistent and concentrated efforts made over
the years by Al Gore and his Russian counterparts in working through a host
of difficult, contentious problems” [p. 507].

(What did you make of that? Nothing?)

“On January 30 [1996], Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin of Russia came to
the White House for his sixth meeting with Al Gore. After they finished their
commission business, Chernomyrdin came to see me to brief me on events in
Russia and Yeltsin’s prospects for reelection” [p. 697].

(Again — nothing).

What idea was “developed” by Talbot?
What extremely secret commission was “headed by Gore and Chernomyrdin”?
Why Mr. Clinton was so happy that “it worked better than any of us could
have imagined”?
What “difficult and contentious problems” were Al Gore and others working
What “commission business” did Al Gore and his partner finish on January
30, 1996?

File 1. Why did this secret Commission appear right after Bill Clinton
entered the Oval Office in 1993 and what was the “business” President
Clinton still doesn’t want to talk about?

At their summit meeting in Vancouver, in April 1993, President Clinton and
President Yeltsin created the U.S.–Russian Joint Commission on Economic and
Technological Cooperation. Since then it has become known as the
Gore–Chernomyrdin Commission (GCC), after its co-chairmen US Vice President
Al Gore and Russian Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin. The Commission’s
original mandate was to support cooperation between the United States and
Russia in the areas of space, energy and high technology.

In fact it was a ruse to mask work on a non-proliferation agreement to
convert highly enriched uranium (HEU) taken from dismantled Russian nuclear
warheads into low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel to be sold to customers in the
USA and worldwide through the USEC (United States Enrichment Company). USEC
was created in 1993 as a government corporation with the mission to
restructure the US government’s uranium enrichment operation and to prepare
it for sale to the private sector. (On April 26, 1996 Bill Clinton signed
into law the USEC Privatization Act.) The HEU Agreement required the United
States to purchase through USEC 500 metric tons, $12 billion worth, of HEU.
Yes, that’s the market price, but President Yeltsin sold nearly the whole
stock of Russia’s military uranium for one thousandth of its actual cost in
terms of petroleum equivalent — one ton of military grade uranium is
equivalent to 100 million tons of oil — or several Persian Gulfs).
President Clinton was very interested in a contract and personally asked
President Yeltsin to keep to its terms.

File 2. What documents we are talking about?

Gore–Chernomyrdin September 1–2, 1993 Russian-American Agreement on HEU
deal. (The full document is not available).
Gore–Chernomyrdin January 6, 1996. The Russian Ministry of Atomic Energy
and the US Department of Energy agreed to create a Russian-American
Consortium on fuel elements to develop environmentally safe and marketable
fuel cell power sources.
Gore–Chernomyrdin February 8, 1997. Memorandum of Cooperation in the Field
of Research on Fundamental Properties of Matter. In a prelude to the
U.S.–Russian summit in Helsinki, Gore and Chernomyrdin met in Washington to
sign a joint statement on nuclear materials security and continued to make
progress on other arms control related matters, such as implementation of the
1993 HEU Agreement.

File 3. Dead Russians.

Three Russian statesmen tried to investigate the Gore–Chernomyrdin deal —
Ruvim Nureyev, Lev Rokhlin, Yuri Shchekotchikhin. All of them are dead now.

1. Ruvim Nureyev. The Russia Chief Inspector for Nuclear and Radiation
Safety, who strongly opposed the deal, was found dead on the railroad tracks
in June 1996. The incident was described as a suicide.
2. Lev Rokhlin. The Russian State Duma Deputy Lieutenant General Lev Rokhlin
was a politician of rare honesty and brevity, who refused to accept the Hero
of Russia Gold Star from Pavel Grachev, then Minister of Defense, because he
believed Grachev was corrupt. Being elected to the Duma he fought government
corruption and advocated the resignation of Russian President Yeltsin, who
fought back and managed to remove Rokhlin from the Defense Committee
chairmanship. In 1998 Rokhlin started his own official Gore–Chernomyrdin
deal investigation, requested all confidential government agreements and a
list of high-ranked officials involved (including Chernomyrdin and Adamov —
see file #4 for this one). Lev Maximov, the Nuclear Technologies Institute
Director, who helped Rokhlin to obtain the documents, received death threats.
On July 3, 1998 Rokhlin was shot three times and killed in his house while he
was sleeping. His wife, Tamara Rokhlina, was arrested and testified that she
killed him “for reasons of personal enmity.” She later recanted her
testimony, saying she incriminated herself under threat. Rokhlin’s
bodyguard, who was there that night, testified that he heard no gunshots (the
killers used a silencer). Within days three more dead bodies were found in
the vicinity of the Rokhlin household and were cremated before they could be
identified. In November 2000, Rokhlina was convicted of murder and sentenced
to 8 years in prison, but the Supreme Court overturned the verdict and
ordered a new trial.

On October 2, 1998 the US Congress, taking into account that Lev Rokhlin was
a former Russian State Duma Defense Committee Chairman, asked President
Clinton to “urge the Russia Government to promptly and thoroughly
investigate” the case. Of course, Bill Clinton was smart enough not to dig
his own grave, and just ignored this resolution:

In the House of
October 2, 1998

Mr. WELDON of Pennsulvania (for himself, Mr. DICKETT, Mr. BARTLETT of
Maryland, Mr. WATTS of Oklahoma, Mr. TAYLOR of North Carolina, Mr.
Thornberry, Mr. GRANGER, Mr. PAPAS, and MR. CUNNINGHAM) submitted the
following resolution, which was referred to the Committee on International


Expressing sympathy to the family and collegues of Lev Yakovlevich Rokhlin,
and expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that President of
the United States should urge the Russia Government to promptly and
thoroughly investigate the circumstances surrounding the death of Lev
Yakovlevich Rokhlin and to provide a full accounting of the circumstances as
soon as practible, but no later than November 1999.
Whereas Lev Rokhlin assumed the chairmanship of the Defense Committee of the
Duma and was the highest-ranking elected official in the Duma working on
Defense issues…
Whereas Lev Rokhlin became involved in investigation of illegal arms from
Russia to Armenia and other nations.
Wheras in October 1997, Lev Rokhlin advocated the resignation of President
Whereas attempts were made for 6 months to remove Lev Rokhlin from his
Committee chairmanship.
Whereas on July 3,1998, Lev Rokhlin was stripped of the chairmanship of the
Defense Committee, but maintained his position as a member of Duma.
Whereas on July 3,1998, Lev Rokhlin was shot in the head three times and
Whereas members of Lev Rokhlin’s family have stated that Rokhlin’s wife,
Tamara Pavlovna Rokhlina, was physically abused and was threatened with death
unless she accepted responsibility for Lev Rokhlin’s murder.
Whereas Lev Rokhlin’s bodyguard, who was in the home the night of the
murder, claimed that he heard no gunshots.
Whereas three bodies were cremated by the Moscow government authorities
before they could be identified.
Whereas any inability of Russia to provide a full accounting of the
circumstances surrounding the death of Lev Rokhlin would raise serious
questions about the existence of a stable democratic system in Russia:

Now, therefore, be it

Resolved,, That –

(1)The House of representatives expresses sympathy to the family and
collegues of Lev Rokhlin and :
(2)it is the senmse of the House of Representatives that the President of the
United States should urge the Russian Government –
(A)to promptly and thoroughly investigate the circumstances surrounding the
death of Lev Rokhlin;
(B) to provide a full accounting of circumstances as soon as practible, but
not later than November,1999

3. Yuri Shchekotchikhin, a famous Russian reporter and corruption fighter,
was elected to the Russian State Duma where he served as National Security
Committee Deputy. After Rokhlin was murdered in 1998, Shchekotchikhin
continued his Gore–Chernomyrdin investigation and concentrated his efforts
in two directions: first, he tried to obtain the #1 Gore–Chernomyrdin
Agreement (September 2, 1993), but President Yeltsin and, since 2000,
President Putin denied the requests; second, he started a full-scale
investigation into the Atomic Ministry corruption and — against Atomic
Minister Adamov in person (again, see file 4). On June 16, 2003, he lost
consciousness and was taken to the Central (Kremlin) Hospital. He was
pronounced dead after lying still unconscious for 12 days. (The official
diagnosis — a flu). All medical records are still classified, but experts
insist he was poisoned by thallium or cadmium.

File 4. Who is Eugene Adamov?

Eugene Adamov

Professor Eugene Adamov was in 1986-1998 a Director of the NIKIET (a secret
Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering), one of the
Russia’s largest centers for nuclear reactors engineering for civil and
military purposes. At the same time he was secretly involved in the
Gore–Chernomyrdin deal as chief expert on the Russian side (even Russian
Defense Minister Igor Rodionov knew nothing about it). On August 24, 1994 he
opened the consulting and management company “Omeka, Ltd.” registered in
Pennsylvania (by the end of 1999 the company had assets valued of $5,080,000)
by his wife. In 1996 he signed a forged contract between NIKIET and
“Omeka,” and opened other companies and banking accounts in Monaco,
Switzerland and France to start money laundering the stolen funds the US
Department of Energy provided Russia to improve safety at Russian nuclear

In 1998-2001 he was a Minister of Russia for Atomic Energy, then, in
2002-2004, adviser to the Chairman of Russian government, and finally, was
back to NIKIET. On May 2, 2005 Adamov was arrested in Bern, Switzerland, and
was charged with conspiracy to defraud the United States and to transfer
stolen money and securities ($9 million), money laundering and tax evasion.
US prosecutors demanded his extradition to the United States, but all of a
sudden Russia did the same, asking to send Adamov back home where he would be
faced a trial. Swiss authorities asked Adamov if he was willing to accept
simplified extradition to the United States. He rejected that and Washington
had to file a formal extradition request. The battle of titans began.

A regular crime with not too much money involved blew up into an
international scandal. The American government’s insistence looked strange
until Bill Clinton appeared on the stage on October 5, 2005 to save Adamov
from 60 years in jail. (Of course, he didn’t show up himself. Adamov hired
a lawyer — Lenny Breuer, a nice young fellow from the Washington, DC based
“Covington & Burling.” Breuer had worked as a special Counsel to
President Clinton in 1997-1999 and represented him in the presidential
impeachment hearings and trial.

Now, it became clear — this was not a battle between Russia and USA, it was
not a problem of international diplomacy or American justice — it was a
battle between the Republicans and Democrats for the Oval Office in 2008.
Bill Clinton had to win this struggle no matter what — if Adamov was
extradited to America, he would “sing” everything on that lovely
Gore-Chernomyrdin business and share his federal cell with the most
best-looking American President of the 20th century. Meanwhile President
Bush, a Republican, needed victory to remove the Clintons from the political
arena forever. Clinton won. On December 18, 2005 the Swiss Supreme Court
overturned a previous ruling by the Justice Ministry, which had said that
Adamov must first face the US courts. On December 30, 2005 Adamov was
extradited from Switzerland to Russia, thus opening the door to the Big
Presidential Game 2008 for Hillary Clinton.

What price will the Russians ask Hillary Clinton to pay for Adamov’s
silence, if she’s elected?

Case # 8.

Name: Diana Spencer, Princess of Great Britain.
Date of birth: July 1, 1961.
Date of death: August 31, 1997 (murdered). At 12.20 A.M. her car left from
the Ritz Hotel in Paris, and in 10 minutes it crashed into the pillar under
the Place d’Alma Tunnel.
Method: staged car accident. Two more persons died – Dodi Al-Fayed, her
boyfriend and Henri Paul, a driver. Bodyguard Trevor Rees-Jones survived.

Question # 1. What was the rush ?
Mohammed Al-Fayed, Dodi’s father, Egyptian-born tycoon, mlti-millionaire,
the owner of Harrods super department store and the Paris Ritz, claims that
British intelligence [why intelligence ? why not counter-espionage service
?not special police unit ? – M.K.] killed the couple to prevent their
marriage and prevent a Muslim from becoming the stepfather of the future
king. OK. On August 30 Dodi Al-Fayed bought some ring for Diana and maybe it
was engagement ring, and maybe the ring “pushed” MI6 to kill Diana next
day, August 31, and maybe on the order of the British Royal Family, i.e.
Queen Elizabeth. So, the Royal Family and MI6 had 24 hours only to : make a
decision, make a plan, make a team, send the team to Paris, start physical
and technical surveillance, prepare another operation to cover up this one
(don’t forget, it’s France, not Great Britain), and what was the rush ?
Some mysterious ring ? Leave me alone.
Answer # 1.
It was a well-prepared special operation (staged accident and it had nothing
to do with any rings, royal engagements or marriages.
Question # 2.
What happened to the driver, “poor” the Ritz security chief Henri Paul,
with $35,000 a year and $420,000 (almost half a million bucks !) banking
account ? Looks like a perfect CIA insider (I’m not going to discuss rumors
on his connection to the French and British intelligence – it’ll take us
nowhere). And a very important thing about the professional driver is –
it’s not a problem to hit his own car and kill his passengers. OK.
Henri Paul was assigned at the last minute to drive the couple on August
31 from the Ritz back door (to elude the paparazzi). He tried to out-run
paparazzi by speeding down a Riverfront Expressway, but lost somehow control
of the Mercedes S280 near the entrance to the Alma Tunnel and crashed into a
concrete pillar at an estimated speed of 65 to 70 miles per hour. He died on
impact of a severed spine and a ruptured aorta. He wasn’t drunk and he
didn’t smell alcohol. Blood samples showed he had alcohol level equal to 3
bottles of wine. The tests showed also extraordinary high (not explained
until now) level of carbon monoxide in his blood (20.7 %), which should have
caused a severe headache, dizziness, confusion and absolute aversion to
alcohol. Very heavy smokers can have a level of up to 9% , and Henri Paul
wasn’t a heavy smoker. There were no ventilation problems in his apartment,
office or car. The gas didn’t appear from inside Mercedes because no other
passanger was affected.
Answer #2.
I told in Spies Identification about “grabbing another end of the rope”
method – let’s modify it now. If you ask me to stage same car accident
followed by investigation with the same findings and evidence, I would give
the driver a special substance (with water or food) which produces symptoms
described above.
Question #3.
Official French investigation concluded (and I agree) that there was a
collision between the Mercedes and a white Fiat Uno ( auxiliary operation to
“help” Henri Paul who had to be be quite sick by that time). The prime
suspect appeared to be James Andanson, a paparazzo who stalked Diana before,
the owner of the same car, but investigation didn’t find enough proof to
charge him with the murder. On May 4,2000 he was found dead (burnt) in his
burnt BMW in a wood, 190 miles from his home.
Answer #3.
To make a long story short – it’s a regular “cover-up” operation.
They’ve killed James Andanson in France for the same reason they’ve
killed Lee Harvey Oswald in USA, before investigation could find the proof he
had nothing to do with the case. Because right conclusions move
investigators forward and in a new direction, and closer to to the top.
Question #4.
In 1999 the Defense Secretary Chief of Staff Tobert Tyrer reviewd at
Mohammed Al-Fayed’s request the DOD documents (?) and reported that they
bore no relations to Diana’s death. The request (I’m sorry) was stupid
and the answer was a joke.
In 2000 Al-Fayed made a desperate move – he tried, through the Columbia
District Court to obtain the CIA (London and Paris stations), National
Security Agency, Defense Intelligence Agency, Department of Defense,
Department of Justice, Department of State, FBI, Executive Offiece of United
State Attorneys, INS and Secret Service “records pertaining to the deaths
of Diana and Dodi”. (I can’t imagine what his lawyers hoped to get from
INS). He got zero and then offered $1 million for reliable information.
In 2006 the reports in the British press claimed that the United States
government agencies were listening to her phone calls; the eavesdropping was
right up to her death, including calls from the Ritz Hotel, where she was
staying that night. The CIA and Secret Service officials denied listening in
on Diana’s calls. The National Security Agency said it never tatrgeted
Diana for eavesdropping, but indicated her name was mentioned in calls by
other people it was monitoring. Officials said that the NSA could have
accidentally picked up telephone intercepts of Diana while targeting someone
else, such as another Ritz guest.
Now I can give a British billionaire Al-Fayed a professional advice :
don’t waste your time and recruit insider in CIA.
Answer #4.
I couldn’t understand why they’ve killed her and why Mohammed Al-Fayed
made the attempt to get CIA files on Diana, until in 2005 the info appeared
about Diana’s 1995 meeting with John Kennedy Jr. in Carlyle Hotel in NYC,
the sasme place President Kennedy used for romantic dates with Marilyn
Monroe. I’m sure, the meeting wasn’t a date – they talked about
President Kennedy’s assassination and possible cooperation in its
investigation. CIA taped the conversation and that was the beginning of her
and his end.

Case # 9.

Name: John Kennedy Jr., the “George” magazine publisher.
Date of birth: November 25,1960.
Date of death: July 16, 1999 (murdered).
Method: staged air crash. Two more persons died – his wife Carolyn and her
sister Lauren Besset.
Reason: John Kennedy declared investigation of his father’s death the aim
of his life.

All experts who tried investigate this case are divided into two parts –
those who say that “John-John” was a good pilot and those who insist that
he was a very bad one. I don’t care. What I care about is – why John
Kennedy Jr. was buried at sea with his ashes (and two passengers’ ashes)
scattered at a site close to where he died. I have I question for Senator
Edward Kennedy who was in charge of this mysterious funeral – why there ?
why in such a way ? to avoid exhumation ?

CHAPTER 2. 9/11.

Three months before September 11 catastrophe happened I’ve informed
President Bush and the US Senate on national security collapse and the CIA

George W. Bush
The U.S. President
The White House Office
1600 Pennsylvania Ave, NW
Washington DC, 20500

The U.S. Senators:

Daniel Akaka, Wayne Allard, George Allen, Paul Barbanes, Max Baucus, Evan
Bayh, Robert Bennett, Joseph Biden, Jeff Bingaman, Christopher Bond, Barbara
Boxer, John Breaux, Sam Brownback, Jim Bunning, Conrad Burns, Robert Byrd,
Ben Campbell, Maria Cantwell, Jean Carnahan, Thomas Carper, Lincoln Chafee,
Max Cleland, Hillary Clinton, Thad Cochran, Susan Collins, Jon Corzine,
Larry Craig, Mike Crapo, Byron Dorgan, Richard Durbin, Thomas Daschle, Mark
Dayton, Mike DeWine, Christopher Dodd, Pete Domenici, John Edwards, Michael
Enzi, Russ Feingold, Dianne Feinstein, Peter Fitzerald, Bill Frist, Bob
graham, Phil Gramm, Charles Grassley, Judd Gregg, Chuck Hagel, Tom Harkin,
Orrin Hatch, Jesse Helms, ernest Hollings, Tim Hutchison, Kay Hutchison,
James Inhofe, Daniel Inouye, James Jeffors, Tim Johnson, Conrad Kent, Edward
Kennedy, John Kerry, Herb Kohl, Jon Kyl, Mary Landrieu, Patrick Leahy, Carl
Levin, Joseph Lieberman, Blanche Lincoln, Trent Lott, Richard Lugar, John
McCain, Mitch McConnell, Barbara Mikulski, Zell Miller, Frank Murkowski,
Patty Murray, Bill Nelson, Benjamin Nelson, Don Nickles, Jack Reed, Harry
Reid, Pat Roberts, John Rockefeller, Rick Santorum, Charles Schumer, Jeff
Sessions, Richard Shelby, Bob Smith, Gordon Smith, Olympia Snow, Arlen
Specter, Debbie Stabenow, Ted Stevens, Craig Thomas, Fred Thompson, Strom
Thurmond, Robert Torricelli, George Voinovich, John Warner, Paul Wellstone,
Ron Wyden

United States Senate

Washington DC, 20510

June 15, 2001

Dear Mr . President. Dear US Senators:

My name is Michael Kryzhanovsky, I’m a former KGB intelligence officer…

I state that CIA as intelligence agency doesn’t exist…

I request the Congress hearing and investigation.


THE U.S. SENATE – 2007

The U.S. Senators who ignored my national security collapse warning three

months prior to September 11,2001 terror attacks with 3,000 killed

Daniel Akaka Wayne Allard Max Baucus Evan
Bayh Robert Bennett Josep Biden Jeff Bingaman Chris Bond

Barbara Boxer Sam Brownback Jim Bunning Robert Byrd
Maria Cantwell Thomas Carper Thad Cochran Susan Collins

Kent Conrad Larry Craig Mike Crapo Christopher
Dodd Pete Domenici Byron Dorgan Richard Durbin John Ensign

Michael Enzi Russ Feingold Dianne Feinstein Charles Grassley
Judd Gregg Chuck Hagel Tom Harkin Orrin Hatch

Kay Hutchison James Inhofe Daniel Inouye Tim Johnson
Edward Kennedy John Kerry Herbert Kohl


Kay Hutchison James Inhofe Daniel Inouye Tim Johnson
Edward Kennedy John Kerry Herbert Kohl John Kyl

Mary Landrieu Patrick Leahy Carl Levin Joseph
Lieberman Blanche Lincoln Trent Lott Richard Lugar John McCain

Mitch McConnell Barbara Mikulski Patty Murray Ben Nelson
Bill Nelson Jack Reed Harry Reid Pat Roberts

John Rockefeller Charles Schumer Jeff Sessions Richard Shelby Gordon Smith
Olympia Snowe Alen Specter Debbie Stabenow

Ted Stevens Craig Thomas George Voinovich John Warner Ron
Wyden John Edwards

Eighteen days before 9/11 tragedy happened I’ve got an answer from
Hillary Clinton only.


New York



Suite 476



August 23, 2001

Dear Mr. Kryzhanovsky:

Thank you for contacting my office for assistance,. The trust and confidence
that your request for assistance represents is very important to me. A
Constituent Liaison has been assigned to handle youor matter and you should
be hearing from my office very soon.


Rodham Clinton

On September 17, 2002, a year and 6 days after September 11 tragedy happened,
the White House answered me.


Washington, D.C.

September 17, 2002

Dear Mr. Kryzhanovsky:

Thank you for contacting President George W. Bush for assistance with an
agency of the federal government. I am responding on behalf of the President.
The White House is sending your inquiry to the Department of Justice which
will review your correspondence. This agency has the expertse to address your
concerns. They will respond to you as promptrly as possible.

The President sends his best wishes.



Assistant to the President

And Director
of Presidential Correspondence

Now look how media responded to my warning (June-August 2001).

“I don’t do this kind of stuff”, Gregg Smith, “Daily News”.

“I’ll look into it”, Hellen Kennedy, the “Daily News Washington, DC

“I have to meet you”, Steve Dunleevy, “New York Post”.

“Call you back”, Erin, ABC.

“Call you back”, LeBlanc, CBS.

“Call you back”, NBC (a person refused to identify herself).

“Go to the nearest precinct and make a public record”, Hailey,
“National Enquirer”.

“We don’t accept unsolicited stuff”, “The New York Times” ( a
person refused to identify herself).

“We care about national security, but we are not going to publish your
stuff”, “Village Voice” (same story).

What happened on September 10,2001 ?

Willie Brown, San Francisco Mayor Condoleeza Rice, the U.S.
Secretary of State

in 1999-2004 National
Security Advisor in 2001.

On September 10,2001, San Francisco Mayor Willie Brown received a phone call
warning him

not to fly to New York City next morning. The phone call came directly from
National Security

Advisor Condoleeza Rice.

When an event of this magnitude is investigated by a government-appointed
committee (like the Warren Commission) and the conclusions presented are
incompatible with the evidence, it is not because the Commission members are
not clever. See that list of names, above.

Is it conceivable that, through their patently inadequate report, the
Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States (or The 9/11
Commission), finding themselves unable to say publicly what had actually
happened, did what little they could by deliberately signaling that there is
more here than meets the eye? Here
are some “pearls” from the report:


1. Constitutional amendment allowing immigrants to be elected the
U.S. President.

Let’s see what Constitution says on that :” No Person except a natural
born Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any
Person be eligible tothat Office who shall not have attained to the Age of
thirty five Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United
States” (Article II of the Constitution of the United States).

Well, it’s all about the Amendment which rermoves the only legalized
discrimination from the Constitution. Let’s read about the process:” The
Congress, whenever two thirds of both Houses shall deem it necessary, shall
propose Amendments to this Constitution, or, on theApplication of the
Legislatures of two thirds of the several States, shall call a Convention for
proposing Amendments, which, in either Case, shall be valid to all Intents
and Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the Legislatures
of three fourths of the several States, or by Conventions in three fourths
thereof, as the one or the other Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the
Congress…” (Artricle V).

Clear. And I’m not going to ask the same boring question – why immigrant
can’t be elected the U.S. President in a very special country of
immigrants. I’m not going to ask “why my baby who was 1 day old when he
crossed the U.S. border will never run for the Oval Office?” . I know the
answer – it’s damned nativity , the Nazi wall which divides the nation
into “natural” and “naturalized” citizens. I think the 21st century
is a high time to destroy the wall. It’s time to give immigrants a chance.
It’s time for democracy. It’s time to elect the national security top
professional to the Oval Office. We need to get back the world superpower
status and slow down Russia and China. We have to gety back the power to
direct the vector of international development. I can do that.
2. Constitutional amendment demanding that the U.S. Vice President should
represent political party which lost presidential election.
3. Constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget, and if the
President ends a year with deficit he should be removed from the Oval Office
by the Supreme Court.
4. Key Cabinet members (Secretary of Defense and Attorney General) should
be appointed by the U.S. Congress.
5. CIA, openly anti-American federal agency, should be liquidated with
political intelligence functions transferred to Pentagon.
6. Defense Department should be in charge of the President’s security.
7. Presidential schools, based on applied political science programs like
“The Professional” should be open at major American Universities.

U.S. Senators:

Daniel Akaka, Lamar Alexander, Wayne Allard, George Allen, Max Baucus, Evan
Bayh, Robert Bennett, Joseph Biden, Jeff Bingaman, Christopher Bond, Barbara
Boxer, Sam Brownback, Jim Bunning, Conrad Burns, Richard Burr, Robert Byrd,
Maria Cantwell, Thomas Carper, Lincoln Chafee, Saxby Chambliss, Hillary
Clinton, Tom Coburn, Thad Cochran, Norm Coleman, Susan Collins, Kent Conrad,
John Cornyn, Larry Craig, Mike Crapo, Mark Dayton, Jim DeMint, Mike DeWine,
Christopher Dodd, Elizabeth Dole, Pete Domenici, Byron Dorgan, Richard
Durbin, John Ensign, Michael Enzi, Russ Feingold, Dianne Feinstein, Bill
Frist, Lindsey Graham, Charles Grassley, Judd Gregg, Chuck Hagel, Tom Harkin,
Orrin Hatch, Kay Hutchison, James Inhoff, Daniel Inouye, Johnny Isakson,
James Jeffords, Tim Johnson, Edward Kennedy, Herbert Kohl, Jon Kyl, Mary
Landrieu, Frank Lautenberg, Patrick Leahy, Carl Levin, Joseph Lieberman,
Blanche Lincoln, Trent Lott, Richard Lugar, Mel Martinez, John McCain, Mitch
McConnell, Robert Menendez, Barbara Mikulski, Lisa Murkowski, Patty Murray,
Ben Nelson, Barack Obama, Mark Pryor, Jack Reed, Harry Reid, Pat Roberts,
John Rockefeller, Ken Salazar, Rick Santorum, Paul Sarbanes, Charles Schumer,
Jeff Sessions, Richard Shelby, Gordon Smith, Olympia Snowe, Arlen Specter,
Debbie Stabenow, Ted Stevens, John Sununu, Jim Talent, Craig Thomas, John
Thune, David Vitter, George Voinovich, John Warner, Ron Wyden.

528 Hart Senate Office Building

Washington, D.C. 20510-2803

December 17,2006

Dear Senators:

It’s 21st century outside and in the country of immigrants it’s high
time to ament the Constitution, allowing an immigrant be elected the U.S.
President. America is being laughed at worldwide because of its total
international impotence. America needs a fresh political blood and great
aggressive ideas.

Your approach to immigrants is nacceptable. Since 1995 you are being taught
how to do your job on my “How You Make Politics” handbook, brought to
you by James Billington, the U.S. Congress Librarian. I have’n got a single
“thank you” from any of you. On June 21,2001, three months before 9/11
attacks happened, I’ve warned you on the U.S. national security system
collapse – Senator Clinton was the only one who answered on August 19,2001,
though it was too late to prevent the coming tragedy, which took the lives of
3000 Americans.

I have no illusions, but I do not hide my plans either. I want to run for the
Oval Office, and that’s why I need the above mentioned constitutional

I hope you’ll make a correct decision this time, and it will happen in

I hope I’ll be the first immigrant to be elected the U.S. President.

I hope I will be the first Republican to unite the nation by taking a
Democrat,Senator Hillary Clinton, as my running mate in 2008 presidential

Michael Kryzhanovsky,

the U.S. leading national security expert

About the

Mike (Mykhaylo) Kryzhanovsky was born in 1958 in Ukraine. He graduated from
Chernovtsy University (BS in languages) and received an extraordinary
specialized education at Ivano-Frankovsk State University, military college,
the KGB counter-espionage school and the KGB Intelligence Institute.

He was involved in secret operations since 1978, and later served as a USSR
intelligence officer, and a member of the KGB’s “The Bell” top secret
anti-terror group. He was a senior intelligence officer and top US government
expert with the National Security Service of Ukraine (NSS). His outstanding
record of producing up to 20 top-secret government intelligence reports
(coded telegrams) a year made him the most productive spy in KGB history, and
his unprecedented 30-year espionage career in Russia and the USA probably
makes him the number one spy in the world.

In 1992 as NSS officer he managed an illegal espionage station in Moscow,
Russia,(operation was authorized by Nikolay Golushko, see photo) and planned
to substitute a stand-in or double for Russian President Boris Yeltsin, who
was the biggest threat to Ukraine at the time. There was a leak, and Yeltsin
pushed Ukrainian President Kravchuk to sign a secret agreement to end mutual
espionage. Kryzhanovsky learned that a decision had been made to liquidate
him and in 1995 he came to the United States. Another KGB officer, Vladimir
Putin, a former FSB (Russian counter-espionage service) Chief, used his plan
and substituted a double for Yeltsin in 2000.

My family, with Russian,Polish and Jewish roots, belongs to Russian military
nobility, and

served the Russian Royal Court since 1650.